Trends and Issues in Recruitment and Selection: A Critical Analysis


By

Binod Kumar Sinha
Faculty Member
Icfai Academy
Raipur
 


Abstract:

Recruitment and Selection plays key role in the development of an organization. This is one of the important HR components in developing Indian Economy, which is growing at the rapid pace.  Today's, where demand of qualified and experienced people is high,the white collar salaries are increasing,every day one MNC is adding presence in Indian market,the pool of experienced professionals are smaller than it large population of our country, attrition rate is quite high ranging from 20-60%, HR professionals are struggling to attract good employees despite fierce competition.

Therefore the Trends and Issues in recruitment and selection is has taken paradigm shift. Employment has undergone a transformational change in most sectors especially in banking, finance, retail, pharmaceutical and insurance.

Introduction:

Recruitment is a process of finding and attracting potential candidates for the job available.Recruitment is a set of activities an organization uses to attract job candidates who have the abilities and attitude needed to help the organization achieve its objectives. There are three stages of recruitment process-identify and define the recruitment, attract potential employees, select and employ appropriate people from job applicants. Recruitment is a continuous process because of staff departure, changes in business requirement; changes in business location and promotion.There are two kinds of recruitment ie Internal recruitment and external recruitment.

To get a right candidate you need to know their traits:

Persuasive

Adaptable

Rule following

Conscientious

Analytical

Decisive

Emotionally controlled

Tough Minded


To get right candidates need to know their abilities:

Numerical

Managerials

Data Analysis


Recruitment and selection process together known as hiring process.There are three steps in Hiring process

* Analysing
* Recruiting
* Interviewing

Analysing involves finding out the vacancies and jobs that need to be filled. Next recruiting where in suitable strategy and operationalised to inform and attract eligible candidates about the job vacancy. Lastly, the recruited candidates undergo test and interview towards final selection.

The following points should be taken care of in formulating recruitment strategy:

* Identifying and prioritizing jobs
* Candidates to target
* Trained recruiters.
* How to evaluate the candidates
* Sources of recruitment

Socio economic scenario in employment perspectives:

Entire scenario in changing fast.GDP of the country is riding and contribution of service sector is now more than half  to GDP whereas contribution of agriculture sector is less than 20%.This has made and created millions of job in services sector,manufacturing sector  and other sectors.Today employment is not an issues( Tourism sector-20 millions job, retail sector  10-15 million ,Banking sector 1.1 million,oil and gas 2.3 millions,Gems and jewellerery 3.16 millions,health care 3.1 millions,Horticulture 2.6 millions,Khadi 1.9  millions, media and entertainment 1 million,Tobacco and tobacco products 6,4 millions, railways 1.9 millions,State transport 2.3 millions, food 2.1 millions) but human resource available against this not at par.Organisation is trying all the way to get good human resource. So the Recruitment and selection plays vital role in the success of an organization.

The 21st century challenges :

The major challenges faced by the HR in recruitment are:

Lead Time Analysis Time taken to complete the process of recruitment is the main concern for an organisation.

Road Ahead The ongoing and upcoming new systems are both an opportunity as well as a challenge for the HR professionals.

Trends in Recruitments:

* Recruitment Process Outsorcing
* Poaching /Riding
* Online or E - Recruitment
* Campus Recruitment
* Referral recruitment
* Summer Internship
* Contract Recruitment
* Temporary Recruitment

Recruitment Process Outsorcing :

The recruitment is one of the leading functions that organisation outsourced.External service providers are conducting all or parts of clients' recruitment services. This practice is very common today and widely accepted in the Industry.This practice will help the organisation in reducing time and costs in recruitment.

Head Hunting and Poaching:

Head Hunting means you attract the employ of your choice from competitors by the way offering lucrative packages for beginning the work for your organisation.Poaching means intended to offer job who are already working with another organisation and which is known.Indian retail and software sector are facing this serious brunt of poaching today.This is very common in BFI sector for gaining immediate advantages. Various implication presents in this process cracking of relationship and offering unrealistics salary for immediate gain.

E recruitment:

Internet has created revolution in recruitment and selection process. Career with us or Job@organisation is common button on Companies website .Today aspirants having global mindset and information on opening are available online with placement consultant website, companies website, city line websites and other portal.Organisation are collecting database whole of the year through this and excersing this to its level best. This will help in time and money cost for the companies and for aspirants it is easier to access it on 24/7.

Summer Internship Programme: This programme bridges the gap between concepts reinforced in class room and real corporate and environmental situation.Corporate having opportunity to evaluate students for long term perspectives. Internship programme is undertaken in the discipline concerned. 

Referral recruitment:

OK4KO refer the people for job with your esteemed organisation. This is very common term in Coca Cola; in fact, this is the process of recognizing the employee's loyality and Values.This means organisation need valuable employees like you. 

Campus Recruitment:

This campus recruitment is the systems where various organizations visit the college campuses to recruit bright youngsters to work for them. The various selection processes tend to remain the same for most of the companies. The selection occurs through 3 main steps,  

(I) Aptitude test,
(ii) Group discussion (GD) and,
(iii) Personal Interview.

Hiring great candidates is a pretty hard job. Recruiters try to dip into their employee's social network by having them refer candidates they know.

Contract Recruitment:

In this kind of recruitment two basic points to be considered, first abilities to match a job requirement and the specialized skill and professionalism of contractors.

Communication is critical throughout the process- Contracts,Insurance, accommodation and expenses all need to organize efficiently and professionally.

Temporary Recruitment:

A Flexible work forces that can respond to your everchanging business demand.This is recognized by quick, efficient and provide strong level of fit between the requirement of campanies and matching skill, attitude and behaviour of candidates. This is one of the most noticeable effects of downsizing epidemic and labor shortage of past two decades has been dramatic rise in the use of temporary employees.Today ,JUST IN TIME, can be formed staffing all types of jobs in the organisation including, professional, technical and higher executive position.

Trends in Selction Process:

* Application
* Interview
* Psychometric Assessment
* Reference check
* The offer
* Orientation

* Application:

If you go through advertisement for recruitment ,one item is common ,"Last date of  application", means buy the application, fill the application and  reach the application on or before that date, in the very first of important date. The common application form generally consists of:

Personal Information :It comprises name,date of birth,gender,marital status,detail of his family ,annual income of the family ,address etc.This heplps in identifying the applicants socio economic strata and family background.This information also helps in the assess his suitability in the organisation,in the job and in the team that he would be associated with.

Educational Qualification : This includes schools,colleges and institution attended by applicants or jobseekers, the period of study,the various courses taken and subjects studied ,the percentage of marks scored and the class of grade secured by him.This components provides opportunity to assess an applicant's academic background.

Work experience: This provides basic information on applicant's previous job.This will help the prospective employers to understand and evaluate the, candidate's suitability to the job, his working habits and his competencies.in relation to the job.

Salary: (Present and Expected): The salary structure is important because different campanies have different salary structure.A company might have low basic salary but higher percentage of other components.

Personality Items: This requires the applicants to provide information on his strengths and weaknesses,his professional goals- both long terms and short terms and his hobbies and interest.This extra information help the employers to understand his hobbies and interest.This extra information helps the employers understand personality of applicants which would help in motivating and improving his performance on the job.

Reference Checks : In this ways organisation wants to check credibility of candidates and to get past record of an applicant.

* Interviews:

Preliminary Interview : The aim of prelims is to eliminate the applicants who are obviously unqualified of jobs.These interviews are generally informal and unstructured and conducted even before the candidates fill in the application blanks. This is presenting more obvious facts and information.This enables the manager to quickly evaluate the interviewee on the basis of appearance and quality of communication.

Formal and structured Interview: This interview is based on through job analysis, which directs the flow of interview.The questions cover all pertinent facts.The same questions are asked to all candidates which helps in better evaluation.

Unstructured Interview: No structured frames of questions.The more open ended questions. A candidate remained comfortable through out the interview.This tends to more subjectives.

Indepth Interview: This is more suitable in selecting the candidates for high end technology  and high skill jobs. Experts in the relevant areas test the candidates ,knowledge and understanding of the subjects and assess his expertise.They determine suitability of candidates for the jobs in questions and based on these evaluation.

Panel Interview: In this process, representatives from various departments get to meet and interview a candidates.This reduce the subjectivities involved in the one to one interview.

Group Interview :This method is resorted to when the number of applicants is high and time available for interviewing is short.This method is useful in while recruiting for entry level and junior management position.

Stress Interview: the objective is to test the applicants abilities to performs and deliver under stress.Interviewers put the interviewee under stress by repeatedly interrupting him, criticizing his answer,asking him unrelated questions or keeping quiet for long time after interviewee has finished talking.

* Psychometric Assessment :

This is standardized procedure to measure intelligences or aptitude or personality of aspirants. This is one of the important parts of selection process of many domestic and international organizations. This help employer to find best match of individual to occupation and working ambience. It should be standardized, reliable, predictive and non discriminatory. 

* Reference Check:

The information given by the candidates is checked by references after final decision taken and before offer is to made.This reference might have been work related (such as former supervisor or co worker) or they might have been personal (such as friend, clergy, or family members). In either case, to the extent that you could, you provided the organisation with a list of people who you believed would generally speak favourably about you.

* The Offer:

Once the candidates are evaluated and final decision is taken, then the offer letters is made which is formal, written and requires acceptance in writing.The objective of the offer letter is " we are pleased to select you for our esteemed organisation."

* The Medical examination:

This is very common in hiring process .This is in fact mentioned in the clause in offer letter to the candidates , which says that the offer is conditional on the candidates being medically fit..

* The Orientation :

Orientation is process by which we introduce new employees to the organisation, their superiors, coworkers and job.The orientation process provides a foundation upon which new employees can build their skill and contribute to our efforts to providing responsive and effective services to the organisation.

Issues in Recruitment and Selection:

* Chances of failure increases in RPO
.

The chances of failure will be high if the RPO do not understand the Vision and recruitment strategy of an organization.The entire success of organization depends upon people and their integrity towards employers. Better recruitment begets better results this is true in every aspects.

* Break down in collaboration with other organization in poaching.

Organisation could offer job to which they thought of valuable but it does not means poach and hunting 100% right perspectives.This spoil the goodwill of an organization to some extent.The organization might practice Coordinate Recruitment.

* Competition driving up salary to unrealistic level.

This is common in today's scenario of fierce competition.

* Resume check:

Authenticity of resume is questionable in this stiff competitive world. Prospective employers are using track methodology to judge reliablility of the content by references, educational qualification, talking to candidates over phone, previous employer reputation etc.

* Internet and PC savvy:

This is obstacle in popularizing e recruitment, but rate of enhancement in PC penetration is our country is quite high so in near future we donot take it as challenges. Lets we have to set modus operandi for online recruitment which will guide prospective employers and aspirants/jobseekers both.

* Face to Face interview, meet the candidates in person:

Technologies have created impact on every function of an organisation and Recruitment and Selection is not an exception. An employer prefers to contact or interact people to feel and understand would be HR asset for them.  This will help the organisation to manage expectation of would in best possible manner.

* Inbreeding ,nepotism and old boy's network:

We should be very careful in this aspects, referring own people is human tendencies.If it find we have to re-correct it with intelligencies, integrity and interventions.

We should be very careful in designing and implementing Hiring Process, Recruitment and Selection, as it plays pivotal role in the success of an organisation.

References:

1. Opportunities : Career Supplement of The Hindu
    May (7,14,21,28) and June (4,11,18,25) 2008

2. www.thehindubusinessline.com/manager/2007/09/03/stories

3. Human Resource Management, John M Ivancevich, Page no.180,191,194,213,232,233

4. Human Resource Management, R P Mohanty, page no.209
 


Binod Kumar Sinha
Faculty Member
Icfai Academy
Raipur
 

Source: E-mail October 11, 2009

          

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