The Essentials of Training and Development


Simeon S. Simon
Asst. Professor
Karunya University

We live in the era where nothing is constant except change. Industries also have no exception from this. Due to this, rapid change is happening in the industrial sector, there is a growing demand for well learned and well qualified, knowledgeable people for various levels. We have an abundant supply of labors available but there is a shortage of well-leaned and well-advanced, knowledgeable people for the various levels. Hence there is wide spread need for highly systematic training. Training helps to improve performance of the individuals as well as industries. This will lead to the organization to attain its goals with minimum effort.

Whenever new employees come on board, whether newly hired or transferred from another office within the same agencies, it is vital that they get a good start in their new position. They need to understand their role in the organization as a whole, learn the expectations of their superiors and practice as the base elements of the job. In order to attain all these they should be well trained, but it is all too caring that managers provide carefully designed programs that give newly arrived people what they really need. Even organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform various functions. As the job became more complex, importance of training and development is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit its resources to maintain available knowledgeable resources. Training is an essential activity in every organization.  In a short 20years, training has mushroomed into a large scale activity and large amount of sum are spent for training in every year by the companies. The immediate question is whether all this training activity or even the greater part of it can be justified by its results.


* OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.

* DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources' technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

* DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS OF EMPLOYEES Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees

* PRODUCTIVITY Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the
organization further to achieve its long-term goal.

* TEAM SPIRIT Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.

* ORGANIZATION CULTURE Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.

* ORGANIZATION CLIMATE Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.

* QUALITY Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.

Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goals.

* HEALTH AND SAFETY Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.

* MORALE Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.

* IMAGE Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

* PROFITABILITY Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.

* Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.

* Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.


Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction.  On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at the actual workplace; off - the-job training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot.  Some of the widely used training methods are listed below.


JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING:  The JIT method is a four step instructional process involving preparation, presentation, performance try out and follows up.  It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current job.  A trainer, supervisor or co-worker acts as the coach.

COACHING:  Coaching is a kind of training method given daily with feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors.  It involves a continuous process of learning by doing.  It may be defined as an informal, unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisors and peers.

MENTORING:  Mentoring is a relationship in which a senior manager in an organization assumes the responsibility for grooming a junior person.  A mentor is a teacher, spouse, and counselor, developer of skills and intellect, host, guide, exemplar.  The main objective of mentoring is to help an employee attain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get integrated with the organization.

JOB ROTATION:  The purpose of job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organizational perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as well as better sense of their own career objectives and interests.

APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING:  Most craft workers such as plumbers and carpenters are trained formal apprenticeship programs.  Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide, coach or trainer.

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS:  In this method, trainees are asked to solve an actual organizational problem.  Assigning talented employees to important committees can give these employees a broadening experience and can help them to understand the personalities, issues and processes governing the organization.


In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room.  This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs.  The duration of this training ranges from a few days to a few weeks.  Theory can be related to practice in this method.

ROLE PLAYING:  It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice.  The participants play the role of certain characters, such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineers, quality control inspectors, foreman, workers and the like.  This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.

LECTURE METHOD:  The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction.  The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk.  To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees.

CONFERENCE/DISCUSSION APPROACH:  In this method, the trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job get clarified.  When big organizations use this method, the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as blackboards, mockups and slides; in some cases the lectures are videotaped or audio taped.

PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION:  This method has become popular in recent years.  The subject-matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units.  These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction.  The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks.  This method is, thus, expensive and time-consuming.


"Training is a critical in any organization's strategy, but organizations don't always evaluate the business impact of a training program. Given the large expenditures for training in many organizations, it is important to develop business intelligence tools that will help companies improve the measurement of training effectiveness. These tools need to provide a methodology to measure, evaluate, and continuously improve training, as well as the organizational and technical infrastructure (systems) to implement the methodology. Cross-functional and reporting and learning analytics provide important connections between the measures of learning effectiveness offered by a learning management system (LMS) and the larger enterprise metrics that indicate whether learning is transferred and positively affects business results."


Training can be expensive both in terms of financial cost and of having staff away from work to attend courses. Helen Highley describes how a manager can assess whether a training course has been effective and whether the employee has been able to put his or her learning into practice. Employees need to be adequately skilled to do their job and require continued training to maintain and develop their competency levels. With pressure to keep costs under control, the manager needs to ensure that any training investment represents good value for money and delivers the necessary skills and knowledge to staff. There are a number of techniques that can be used to assess whether training has been absorbed and put into practice in everyday work. The manager should use a combination of methods to check whether the training has been effective in the real-life work setting. Soon after the course, the manager should meet with the employee to discuss it. This meeting demonstrates the organization's interest in the employee's development and allows the manager to perform an initial assessment of how effective the training has been.


1. Programmes are not linked specifically to strategies, challenges or problems in the       organization.
2. Programmes are designed to create awareness and understanding, but not competence.
Programmes focus on individuals rather than operating units
3. Training materials are not worthwhile or nor adequate.
4. Trainer may not give flexible timings in tune with employee's requirements


* Training should be job oriented.
It helps employees to attain target and increases the productivity level.
* Sufficient knowledge should be given to the trainee regarding the key areas


* There should be a proper interaction between the trainer and the trainee
* The trainer should be having very good communication. The trainer should have the leadership, organizing quality.
* The trainer should know as to how to use right tools. .


Another important factor is the quality of training materials provided during training. It can be in the form of booklets, study materials, which will be helpful for the trainees in the future.


* During the time of training, trainer should provide good training ambience to the trainees so as to be comfortable. Facilities like comfortable learning atmosphere, seating facilities, sufficient lighting and sounding system should be well taken care of.

Sources:  Relevant Human resource books and internet source

Simeon S. Simon
Asst. Professor
Karunya University

Source: E-mail February 10, 2010


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