Indian Financial Reforms with Reference to Banking Sector
- A Critical Evaluation


Dr. Ajit Kumar Bansal
Associate Professor
School of Management Sciences
Shoolini University
Solan (H.P.)

Analysis of Indian Financial Sector reveals that it is at present going through a phase of stable growth rate which is experiencing a upward swing. The rise can be maintained over a long period by keeping the inflation down. The financial sector in India has experienced a growth rate of 8.5% per annum. The rise in the growth rate suggests the growth of the economy. The financial policies and the monetary policies are able to sustain a stable growth rate. The reforms pertaining to the monetary policies and the macro economic policies over the last few years have influenced the Indian economy to the core. The major step towards opening up of the financial market further was the nullification of the regulations restricting the growth in the financial sector. To maintain such a growth for a long term the inflation has to come down further. The analysis of Indian financial sector shows the growth of the sector was the result of the individual development of the divisions under the sector.

Analysis of the Indian Capital market

  • The ratio of the transaction was increased with the share ratio and deposit system
  • The removal of the pliable but ill-used forward trading mechanism
  • The introduction of InfoTech systems in the National Stock Exchange (NSE) in order to cater to the various investors in different locations
  • Privatization of stock exchanges

Analysis of the Indian Venture Capital market

  • The venture capital sector in India is one of the most active in the financial sector in spite of the hindrances by the external set up
  • Presently in India there are around 34 national and 2 international SEBI registered venture capital funds

Analysis of the Indian Banking sector

  • The banking system in India is the most extensive. The total asset value of the entire banking sector in India is nearly US$ 270 billion.
  • The total deposit is nearly US$ 220 billion. Banking sector in India has been transformed completely.
  • Presently the latest inclusions such as Internet banking and Core banking have made banking operations more users friendly and easy.

Analysis of the Indian Insurance sector

  • With the opening of the market, foreign and private Indian players are keen to convert untapped market potential into opportunities by providing tailor-made products:
  • The insurance market is filled up with new players which has led to the introduction of several innovative insurance based products, value add-ons, and services. Many foreign companies have also entered the arena such as Tokio Marine, Aviva, Allianz, Lombard General, AMP, New York Life, Standard Life, AIG, and Sun Life
  • The competition among the companies has led to aggressive marketing, and distribution techniques
  • The active part of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) as a regulatory body has provided to the development of the sector

Investment in India - Financial Sector & Reforms

Bank norms liberalized and banks given the freedom to decide levels of holding of individual items of inventories and receivables. Ceiling on term loans raised to Rs. 10,000 million for projects involving expansion/modernization of power generation capacities. Banks allowed setting their own interest rate on post-shipment export credit (in Rupees) for over 90 days. Deregulation of interest rates on loans over Rs. 200,000 against term deposits and on domestic deposits with maturity periods over two years. Banks freed to fix their own foreign exchange open position limit subject to RBI approval

Guidelines issued to banks to ensure qualitative improvement in their customer service. Loan system introduced for delivery of bank credit. Banks required to bifurcate the maximum permissible bank finance of Rs. 200 million and above into loan component of 40% (short term working capital loan) and cash credit component of 60%.

The last decade witnessed the maturity of India's financial markets. Since 1991, every governments of India took major steps in reforming the financial sector of the country. The important achievements in the following fields is discussed under serparate heads:

  • Financial markets
  • Regulators
  • The banking system
  • Non-banking finance companies
  • The capital market
  • Mutual funds
  • Overall approach to reforms
  • Deregulation of banking system
  • Capital market developments
  • Consolidation imperative

Now let us discuss each segment separately.

Financial Markets

In the last decade, Private Sector Institutions played an important role. They grew rapidly in commercial banking and asset management business. With the openings in the insurance sector for these institutions, they started making debt in the market.

Competition among financial intermediaries gradually helped the interest rates to decline. Deregulation added to it. The real interest rate was maintained. The borrowers did not pay high price while depositors had incentives to save. It was something between the nominal rate of interest and the expected rate of inflation.


The Finance Ministry continuously formulated major policies in the field of financial sector of the country. The Government accepted the important role of regulators. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has become more independant. Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) became important institutions. Opinions are also there that there should be a super-regulator for the financial services sector instead of multiplicity of regulators.

The banking system

Almost 80% of the business are still controlled by Public Sector Banks (PSBs). PSBs are still dominating the commercial banking system. Shares of the leading PSBs are already listed on the stock exchanges.

The RBI has given licences to new private sector banks as part of the liberalisation process. The RBI has also been granting licences to industrial houses. Many banks are successfully running in the retail and consumer segments but are yet to deliver services to industrial finance, retail trade, small business and agricultural finance.

The PSBs will play an important role in the industry due to its number of branches and foreign banks facing the constrait of limited number of branches. Hence, in order to achieve an efficient banking system, the onus is on the Government to encourage the PSBs to be run on professional lines.

Development finance institutions

FIs's access to SLR funds reduced. Now they have to approach the capital market for debt and equity funds.

Convertibility clause no longer obligatory for assistance to corporates sanctioned by term-lending institutions.

Capital adequacy norms extended to financial institutions.

DFIs such as IDBI and ICICI have entered other segments of financial services such as commercial banking, asset management and insurance through separate ventures. The move to universal banking has started.

Non-banking finance companies

In the case of new NBFCs seeking registration with the RBI, the requirement of minimum net owned funds, has been raised to Rs.2 crores.

Until recently, the money market in India was narrow and circumscribed by tight regulations over interest rates and participants. The secondary market was underdeveloped and lacked liquidity. Several measures have been initiated and include new money market instruments, strengthening of existing instruments and setting up of the Discount and Finance House of India (DFHI).

The RBI conducts its sales of dated securities and treasury bills through its open market operations (OMO) window. Primary dealers bid for these securities and also trade in them. The DFHI is the principal agency for developing a secondary market for money market instruments and Government of India treasury bills. The RBI has introduced a liquidity adjustment facility (LAF) in which liquidity is injected through reverse repo auctions and liquidity is sucked out through repo auctions.

On account of the substantial issue of government debt, the gilt- edged market occupies an important position in the financial set- up. The Securities Trading Corporation of India (STCI), which started operations in June 1994 has a mandate to develop the secondary market in government securities.

Long-term debt market: The development of a long-term debt market is crucial to the financing of infrastructure. After bringing some order to the equity market, the SEBI has now decided to concentrate on the development of the debt market. Stamp duty is being withdrawn at the time of dematerialisation of debt instruments in order to encourage paperless trading.

The capital market

The number of shareholders in India is estimated at 25 million. However, only an estimated two lakh persons actively trade in stocks. There has been a dramatic improvement in the country's stock market trading infrastructure during the last few years. Expectations are that India will be an attractive emerging market with tremendous potential. Unfortunately, during recent times the stock markets have been constrained by some unsavoury developments, which has led to retail investors deserting the stock markets.

Mutual funds .

The mutual funds industry is now regulated under the SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996 and amendments thereto. With the issuance of SEBI guidelines, the industry had a framework for the establishment of many more players, both Indian and foreign players.

The Unit Trust of India remains easily the biggest mutual fund controlling a corpus of nearly Rs.70,000 crores, but its share is going down. The biggest shock to the mutual fund industry during recent times was the insecurity generated in the minds of investors regarding the US 64 scheme. With the growth in the securities markets and tax advantages granted for investment in mutual fund units, mutual funds started becoming popular.

The foreign owned AMCs are the ones which are now setting the pace for the industry. They are introducing new products, setting new standards of customer service, improving disclosure standards and experimenting with new types of distribution.

The insurance industry is the latest to be thrown open to competition from the private sector including foreign players. Foreign companies can only enter joint ventures with Indian companies, with participation restricted to 26 per cent of equity. It is too early to conclude whether the erstwhile public sector monopolies will successfully be able to face up to the competition posed by the new players, but it can be expected that the customer will gain from improved service.

The new players will need to bring in innovative products as well as fresh ideas on marketing and distribution, in order to improve the low per capita insurance coverage. Good regulation will, of course, be essential.

Overall approach to reforms

The last ten years have seen major improvements in the working of various financial market participants. The government and the regulatory authorities have followed a step-by-step approach, not a big bang one. The entry of foreign players has assisted in the introduction of international practices and systems. Technology developments have improved customer service. Some gaps however remain (for example: lack of an inter-bank interest rate benchmark, an active corporate debt market and a developed derivatives market). On the whole, the cumulative effect of the developments since 1991 has been quite encouraging. An indication of the strength of the reformed Indian financial system can be seen from the way India was not affected by the Southeast Asian crisis.

However, financial liberalisation alone will not ensure stable economic growth. Some tough decisions still need to be taken. Without fiscal control, financial stability cannot be ensured. The fate of the Fiscal Responsibility Bill remains unknown and high fiscal deficits continue. In the case of financial institutions, the political and legal structures hve to ensure that borrowers repay on time the loans they have taken. The phenomenon of rich industrialists and bankrupt companies continues. Further, frauds cannot be totally prevented, even with the best of regulation. However, punishment has to follow crime, which is often not the case in India.

Deregulation of banking system

Prudential norms were introduced for income recognition, asset classification, provisioning for delinquent loans and for capital adequacy. In order to reach the stipulated capital adequacy norms, substantial capital were provided by the Government to PSBs.

Government pre-emption of banks' resources through statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) and cash reserve ratio (CRR) brought down in steps. Interest rates on the deposits and lending sides almost entirely were deregulated.

New private sector banks allowed to promote and encourage competition. PSBs were encouraged to approach the public for raising resources. Recovery of debts due to banks and the Financial Institutions Act, 1993 was passed, and special recovery tribunals set up to facilitate quicker recovery of loan arrears.

Bank lending norms liberalised and a loan system to ensure better control over credit introduced. Banks asked to set up asset liability management (ALM) systems. RBI guidelines issued for risk management systems in banks encompassing credit, market and operational risks.

A credit information bureau being established to identify bad risks. Derivative products such as forward rate agreements (FRAs) and interest rate swaps (IRSs) introduced.

Capital market developments

The Capital Issues (Control) Act, 1947, repealed, office of the Controller of Capital Issues were abolished and the initial share pricing were decontrolled. SEBI, the capital market regulator was established in 1992.

Foreign institutional investors (FIIs) were allowed to invest in Indian capital markets after registration with the SEBI. Indian companies were permitted to access international capital markets through euro issues.

The National Stock Exchange (NSE), with nationwide stock trading and electronic display, clearing and settlement facilities was established. Several local stock exchanges changed over from floor based trading to screen based trading.

Private mutual funds permitted

The Depositories Act had given a legal framework for the establishment of depositories to record ownership deals in book entry form. Dematerialisation of stocks encouraged paperless trading. Companies were required to disclose all material facts and specific risk factors associated with their projects while making public issues.

To reduce the cost of issue, underwriting by the issuer were made optional, subject to conditions. The practice of making preferential allotment of shares at prices unrelated to the prevailing market prices stopped and fresh guidelines were issued by SEBI.

SEBI reconstituted governing boards of the stock exchanges, introduced capital adequacy norms for brokers, and made rules for making client or broker relationship more transparent which included separation of client and broker accounts.

Buy back of shares allowed

The SEBI started insisting on greater corporate disclosures. Steps were taken to improve corporate governance based on the report of a committee. SEBI issued detailed employee stock option scheme and employee stock purchase scheme for listed companies.  Standard denomination for equity shares of Rs. 10 and Rs. 100 were abolished. Companies given the freedom to issue dematerialized shares in any denomination. Derivatives trading starts with index options and futures. A system of rolling settlements introduced. SEBI empowered to register and regulate venture capital funds. The SEBI (Credit Rating Agencies) Regulations, 1999 issued for regulating new credit rating agencies as well as introducing a code of conduct for all credit rating agencies operating in India.

Consolidation imperative

Another aspect of the financial sector reforms in India is the consolidation of existing institutions which is especially applicable to the commercial banks. In India the banks are in huge quantity. First, there is no need for 27 PSBs with branches all over India. A number of them can be merged. The merger of Punjab National Bank and New Bank of India was a difficult one, but the situation is different now. No one expected so many employees to take voluntary retirement from PSBs, which at one time were much sought after jobs. Private sector banks will be self consolidated while co-operative and rural banks will be encouraged for consolidation, and anyway play only a niche role.

In the case of insurance, the Life Insurance Corporation of India is a behemoth, while the four public sector general insurance companies will probably move towards consolidation with a bit of nudging. The UTI is yet again a big institution, even though facing difficult times, and most other public sector players are already exiting the mutual fund business. There are a number of small mutual fund players in the private sector, but the business being comparatively new for the private players, it will take some time.

We finally come to convergence in the financial sector, the new buzzword internationally. Hi-tech and the need to meet increasing consumer needs is encouraging convergence, even though it has not always been a success till date. In India organisations such as IDBI, ICICI, HDFC and SBI are already trying to offer various services to the customer under one umbrella. This phenomenon is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Where mergers may not be possible, alliances between organisations may be effective. Various forms of bancassurance are being introduced, with the RBI having already come out with detailed guidelines for entry of banks into insurance. The LIC has bought into Corporation Bank in order to spread its insurance distribution network. Both banks and insurance companies have started entering the asset management business, as there is a great deal of synergy among these businesses. The pensions market is expected to open up fresh opportunities for insurance companies and mutual funds.

It is not possible to play the role of the Oracle of Delphi when a vast nation like India is involved. However, a few trends are evident, and the coming decade should be as interesting as the last one.

Impact of Financial Sector Reforms in India

Banks have been accorded greater discretion in sourcing and utilization of resources, albeit in an increasingly competitive environment. The outreach of the Indian banking system has increased in terms of expansion of branches/ATMs. In the post-reform period, assets/liabilities of banks have grown consistently at a high rate. The financial performance of banks also improved as reflected in their increased profitability. Net profit to assets ratio improved from 0.49 per cent in 2000-01 to 1.13 per cent in 2003-04. Although it subsequently declined to 0.88 per cent in 2005-06, it was still significantly higher than that in the early 1990s. Banks have been successful in weathering the impact of upturn in interest rate cycle through increasing diversification of their income. Though banks had to incur huge expenditures on up gradation of information technology, the restructuring of the workforce in public sector banks helped them cut down the staff cost and increase in business per employee. Another welcome development has been the sharp reduction in non-performing loans (NPLs). Both gross and net NPLs started to decline in absolute terms since 2002-03. Gross NPLs as percentage of gross advances, which were above 15 per cent in the early 1990s, are now less than 3 per cent. This distinct improvement in asset quality may be attributed to the improved recovery climate underpinned by strong macroeconomic performance as well as several institutional measures initiated by the Reserve Bank/Government such as debt recovery tribunals, Lok Adalats, scheme of corporate debt restructuring in 2001, the SARFAESI Act in 2002. Since 1995-96, the banking sector, on the whole, has been consistently maintaining CRAR well above the minimum stipulated norm. The overall CRAR for scheduled commercial banks increased from 8.7 per cent at end-March 1996 to 12.3 per cent at end-March 2006. The number of banks not complying with the minimum CRAR also declined from at end-March 1996 to just two by end-March 2006. Improved capital position stemmed largely from the improvement in profitability and rising of capital from the market, though in the initial stages the Government had to provide funds to recapitalize weak public sector banks. Even though public sector banks continue to dominate the Indian banking system, accounting for nearly three-fourths of total assets and income, the increasing competition in the banking system has led to a falling share of public sector banks, and increasing share of the new private sector banks, which were set up around mid-1990s. It is clear that we are at the beginning of this new phase in the Indian banking with competitive pressure, both domestic and external, catching up and the need for banks to continuously reassess and reposition themselves in their business plans.


The financial system in India, through a measured, gradual, cautious, and steady process, has undergone substantial transformation. It has been transformed into a reasonably sophisticated, diverse and resilient system through well-sequenced and coordinated policy measures aimed at making the Indian financial sector more competitive, efficient, and stable. Concomitantly, effective monetary management has enabled price stability while ensuring availability of credit to support investment demand and growth in the economy. Finally, the multi-pronged approach towards managing capital account in conjunction with prudential and cautious approach to financial liberalization has ensured financial stability in contrast to the experience of many developing and emerging economies. This is despite the fact that we faced a large number of shocks, both global and domestic. Monetary policy and financial sector reforms in India had to be fine tuned to meet the challenges emanating from all these shocks. Viewed in this light, the success in maintaining price and financial stability is all the more creditworthy.


1) Reserve Bank of India monthly bulletin
2) Anandabazar Patrika
3) Economic Survey of India
4) Economic times

Dr. Ajit Kumar Bansal
Associate Professor
School of Management Sciences
Shoolini University
Solan (H.P.)

Source: E-mail October 6, 2010


Articles No. 1-99 / Articles No. 100-199 / Articles No. 200-299 / Articles No. 300-399 / Articles No. 400-499 / Articles No. 500-599
Articles No. 600-699 / Articles No. 700-799 / Articles No. 800-899 / Articles No. 900-1000 / Articles No. 1001-1100
Articles No. 1101-1200 / Articles No. 1201 Onward / Faculty Column Main Page