Consumer's Attitude and Perception towards
Packaged Drinking Water
(with special reference to Virudhunagar Town)


By

Dr. G.B. Karthikeyan
Asst. Professor
Mr. T.M.R surya vardhan
Research Scholar
Department of Management Studies
Hindusthan College of Srts and Science
Coimbatore
 


Water is a priceless gift of nature. Without water, there is no life on earth. None can deny that water is a friend to human race but it also acts as a foe by way of harboring disease producing micro-organisms and containing some substances that may lead to ill health. The introduction of packaged drinking water for human consumption at recent times is a boon to mankind and more convenience are realized. Whenever a common man purchases packaged water, he thinks that the quality is assures and it is safe water. Such assurance should be given to consumer by each and every manufacturer of packaged mineral water and packaged drinking water. Keeping in view the utmost important of quality, bureau of Indian standards has, promulgated standards for packaged drinking intended for human consumption. The standards are published classifying the packaged water into two groups, namely, 1.

* Packaged natural mineral water
* Packaged drinking water (other than packaged natural mineral water)

Natural mineral water is defined as the water obtained directly from natural or drilled source from underground stratum which is protected from possible contamination. It is characterized by its content of its composition. This water should be suitable for direct consumption without any further treatment and may be filled in suitable containers made up of recommended materials or in sterile glass bottles and properly sealed. Package drinking water (other than packaged natural mineral water) is the drinking water of satisfactory quality derived from any source, and packed in suitable containers and sealed properly. To make the water to suit the quality requirement, the water may be subjected to any type of treatment namely, filtration (including activated carbon filtration), demineralization, demineralization and reverse osmosis. The water may be disinfected by any method, provided that the disinfection procedure will not leave any harmful residues in water.

1.2 Need for the study

Packaged drinking water is getting familiar as the aspect of convenience and quality has been guaranteed. The customers are having numerous brands in selecting the packaged drinking water, and the variety of packaged drinking water is also like mushroom with various styles viz., bottled, bubble top, can, and so on. But when the aspect of brand influences the purchase there comes the threat on domestic brand also, hence a research has been carried over to analyse the attitude, perception and behavior of customers consuming packaged drinking water. 

1.3 Scope of the study

Competition is rife, in today's complex world, the aspect of considering the food as the prime concept has been eliminated in the fastest world, every person who live in the fast growing complex world would like to consume food not by large but by mean. Hence the aspect of considering the leverage of mixing food items in to digestive component is determined by intake of drinking water. No matter where the water procured viz., ground water, rain water, distilled water, purified water and by any other mean. It is recapitalized that the vitality of water is the need of any aspect of digestive function. Hench the intake of water has accumulated his necessity in the consumption of normal man. The failure of monsoon, no availability of pure water has necessitated to invent packaged drinking water. Now the order of the day is to consume packaged drinking water whereby it substances the aspect quality, worth, affordable price and easy carrying. The business world today had been accord in large consumption of packaged drinking water as it eliminates disease like dengue, cold, fever, metropolis attacks, dysentery and other viral infections. Due manufacture step in to the process of inventing packaged drinking water which is of sterilized ultra violet treated, concrete absorption and cleaning of virus.

Area of the study:

The area of the study was virudhu nagar town and the sample size includes 150 respondents.

1.5  Objectives of the study

1. To analyze the factors influencing purchase of packaged drinking water.

2. To analyze the level of awareness and satisfaction of packaged drinking water among the customers, on pre and post purchase.

Water is a key to social equity to environmental stability and to cultural diversity. If one goes back to the culture of ancient times, with all the great religions of the world, it will be seen that water is much more than an economic issue. Water is directly linked with spiritual values, with respect to mankind towards nature. Water is also firmly linked with health. According to the estimate of World Health Organization (WHO), 80% of all diseases — approximately 25 million deaths per year — in the developing countries are caused by contaminated water. Pure and safe drinking water has always been a necessity. Traditionally, pipe water distributed by the municipalities has been the trusted water supply for drinking purposes. In the earlier days, water available from the wells and springs used to be considered safe and was stored in earthen pots or brass containers. This water was considered safe for drinking and serving to guests and visitors. The tradition and style of serving drinking water, in India, has however changed quite dramatically during the last decade. Almost a decade ago, the introduction of bottled water or "packaged mineral water" has changed the tradition of serving and consuming drinking water. This has ushered in very strongly, the use of polymers or plastics as materials for water storage and distribution. Today, packaged drinking water is an industry in India, which is estimated at Rs.700 crores with over 200 brands floating in the market, most of which have restricted territorial distribution. This is a growing market in India as quality consciousness among the consumers is on the rise. Every year an estimated 800 million litres of bottled water are marketed in plastics and the demand continues to grow. Besides bottled water, there is also a large market for plastic pouches, especially in the states of Tamilnadu and Gujarat. At the global level, packed water (containers up to 10 litres) industry is considered as a significant contributor in the beverage industry and accounts for over 80 billion litres per annum. It is the fastest growing beverage industry worth Rs. 990 billion a year. Volume growth for the year 2001 stood at 8%, making it the best performing of all soft drinks on the world stage. Among several other factors, general trend towards a healthier lifestyle is the key attribute. Concerns over the quality of public water supplies in various countries around the globe have also added significant support.

Processing of Water for Bottling

In India, the quality of drinking water is very poor in comparison to other countries. Treatment of water is required for purification. To produce high quality drinking water as prescribed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), conventional processing methods like coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, ion exchange, filtration and oxidation etc. are not sufficient. Membrane processes have advantages over other treatment processes. Micro-filtration and ultra-filtration are said to be very useful in removing micro-organisms. Reverse osmosis membranes are used to remove various contaminants found in drinking water. A combination of reverse osmosis and de-ionisation can be used to produce high quality water.

Bottle Filling

Before filling, freshly manufactured plastic bottles are rinsed and inverted from where they go for filling on a rotary bottle filler. The water flows from the filler bowl into the bottles via ventra flow valves. These valves use an airlock method for accurate filling. The variation is no more than 5mm. When liquid reaches the end of the valve sleeve, air cannot escape Pressure is created at the top of the bottle, and no more liquid can enter. The airlock method provides consistent, repetitive filling and reduced product loss. The fillers are available in a wide range of configurations and are adaptable to a variety of capping systems. IS : 14543 - 1998 (Specification for Packaged Drinking Water) prescribes the hygienic practices to be followed in respect of collecting water, its treatment, bottling, storage, packaging, transport, distribution and sale for direct consumption , so as to guarantee a safe, hygienic and wholesome product. The bottles are generally capped using roll-on type plastic caps, with pilfer proof rings.

Bottle Labeling

The last step is the labeling of bottles. In the earlier days, gummed paper labels were used which satisfied only the legal requirements of declaration. When these labels came in contact with moist surface, they lost their identity. Later shrink film plastic labels came into use for this application. Auto-sleeve system for labeling then became a commercial success. Auto-sleeve labels are used both for one way and refillable-multi-trip plastic bottles. It is a stretchable label made of low density polyethylene of special grade. The Department of Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has notified to carry the following declaration on the label of the disposable bottle of mineral water or packaged drinking water.

["Crush the bottle after use" ]

The notification will be published in the Gazette of India and the rule will come into force from 01/04/2004. Other labeling requirements should be as per PFA Rules and Packaged Commodities Rules as prescribed in IS: 14543 – 1998 (Specification for Packaged Drinking Water).

Packaging Requirements

It is well known that drinking water should be packed in clean, colourless, odourless, clear, tamperproof containers, which are hygienically safe. Much of the water is packaged in similar bottles as carbonated soft drinks, and would, therefore, carry many of the same requirements.

Strength

Unlike carbonated drinks, the bottles filled with still water need only enough strength to hold water and to survive impact.

Colour and Clarity

Clarity is one of the most important requirements and is the main reason why clear bottles of plastics are used. A resin with higher levels of co-polymer adds to the clarity. As regards the light blue colour in the bottles, this is permissible for one time use bottles. However in India, the BIS (Bureau of India Standards) has prescribed colourless bottles for multi trip/reusable containers.Since currently almost all the bottlers use blue coloured containers, studies have commenced at IIP to establish whether blue colour helps to reduce the UV effect and the percentage of blue colour that could be considered to be added without affecting the clarity of the bottle.

Purity

Because water is a flavourless product, using a plastic that remains tasteless and odourless is imperative.

Mandatory Certification

To prevent adulteration, the quality of the bottle and its sealing drew great attention and concern. The standardisation of the quality of the water and the bottles was not thought of earlier. There was a concern whether mushrooming brands in packaged drinking water would really ensure quality and safety. The provisions of mandatory BIS certification and that of Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA) have brought in assurance to the consumers that packaged drinking water is trustworthy.The Indian Standard IS: 14543 – 1998 prescribes the quality and safety requirements of packaged drinking water.

Plastic Package Types

As the market has evolved, so too has its packaging mix. Bottles may be the favourite container for packaging water, but glass rarely features as the first choice today. Glass together with cans and cartons have a diminished share. Glass retains a high profile in outlets where the water is for consumption on the premises (hotels, restaurants, cafes) remaining particularly strong in Central and South America and Europe, especially Germany. Plastics are versatile materials and are in many cases capable of matching or surpassing the characteristics of other types of packages. They do not corrode, are hygienic, lightweight and often provide opportunities for reducing the weight of the packages used.  A variety of polymers are available which can be used for packaging of drinking water.

Polyethylene

Low-density polyethylene film is the most important group of plastics used in packaging drinking water. Polyolefins also have the highest calorific value of all constituents in the packaging waste stream and are, therefore, prime candidates for disposal through incineration with energy recovery.

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

PET is the most extensively recycled plastic of the present time. It is easier to collect than other plastics. It has a high intrinsic value, is economic to recycle even with existing collection systems and there are well-developed markets for its recycling, such as carpet fibres and fibre film. The important feature of used PET is its ability to be converted chemically to the monomer from which it was produced using hydrolysis or methonolysis. The US Food & Drug Administration for food-packaging applications have approved PET produced by chemical recovery of this sort. For packaged drinking water PET bottles are used in 50ml to 20 litres capacity. Perrier has developed a new container that incorporates a layer of nylon sandwiched between layers of PET to comply with the requirement for a standard 12 months shelf-life mineral water.

Polypropylene (PP)

Polypropylene (random clarified co-polymer) is widely used for food contact applications throughout the world and enjoys favourable status with food and regulatory agencies. PP containers/cups with peelable lids are used for packaging of drinking water in 100, 200ml. Capacities with suitable lids for closures.

Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)

Earlier, the most commonly used package for mineral water was stretch blow moulded bottle of PVC, as PVC is rigid, clear and has adequate impact strength. Compared to other polymers, PVC requires lower amount of energy to produce. If collected separately, it can be readily recycled. The recycled PVC is sandwiched between inner & outer layers of virgin polymer in co-extruded PVC pipes. The major concern for safe use of PVC for non-toxic and food contact applications is the residual monomer level in the resin. The FDA in USA and regulatory agencies have specified the monomer levels at 5ppm in PVC resin. PVC containers in capacities of 100, 200, 250 and 1000ml are used for packaged drinking water.

Polycarbonate (PC)

Polycarbonate can be processed into useful end products by any of the usual processing techniques like extrusion, blow moulding, injection moulding etc. Polycarbonate containers are popularly used for muti-trip application for mineral water containers of 15-20 litres.

Polyethylene Naphlthate (PEN)

This is a high performance resin and the containers made out of this resin are used for refillable, returnable mineral water.

HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene) containers cater to the 200ml mineral water market. These containers are provided with heat sealable peelable lids.

The content and substances of packaged drinking water

S.No

Characteristics

Requirement

1

Colour

Not more than 2 Hazen units/ True Color Units

2

Odour

Agreeable

3

Taste

Agreeable

4

Turbidity

Not more than 2 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU)

5

Total Dissolved Solids

Not more than 500 mg/litre

6

pH

6.5 – 8.5

7

Nitrates(as NO3)

Not more than 45 mg/litre

8

Nitrites(as NO2)

Not more than 0.02 mg/litre

9

Sulphide(as H2S)

Not more than 0.05 mg/litre

10

Mineral oil

Not more than 0.01 mg/litre

11

Phenolic compounds(as C6H5OH)

Not more than 0.001 mg/litre

12

Manganese(as Mn)

Not more than 0.1 mg/litre

13

Copper (as Cu)

Not more than 0.05 mg/litre

14

Zinc(as Zn)

Not more than 5 mg/litre

15

Fluoride(as F)

Not more than 1.0 mg/litre

16

Barium(as Ba)

Not more than 1.0 mg/litre

17

Antimony(as Sb)

Not more than 0.005 mg/litre

18

Nickel(as Ni)

Not more than 0.02 mg/litre

19

Borate(as B)

Not more than 5 mg/litre

20

Anionic surface active agent(as MBAS)

Not more than 0.2 mg/litre

21

Silver(as Ag)

Not more than 0.01 mg/litre

22

Chlorides(as C1)

Not more than 200 mg/litre

23

Sulphate(as SO4)

Not more than 200 mg/litre

24

Magnesium(as Mg)

Not more than 30 mg/litre

25

Calcium(as Ca)

Not more than 75 mg/litre

26

Sodium(as Na)

Not more than 200 mg/litre

27

Alkalinity(as HCO3)

Not more than 200 mg/litre

28

Arsenic(as As)

Not more than 0.05 mg/litre

29

Cadmium(as Cd)

Not more than 0.01 mg/litre

30

Cyanide(as CN)

Not more than 0.05 mg/litre

31

Chromium(as Cr)

Not more than 0.05 mg/litre

32

Mercury(as Hg)

Not more than 0.001 mg/litre

33

Lead(as Pb)

Not more than 0.01 mg/litre

34

Selenium(as Se)

Not more than 0.01 mg/litre

35

Iron(as Fe)

Not more than 0.1 mg/litre

36

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)

Not detectable

37

Poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

Not detectable

38

Aluminium(as A1)

Not more than 0.03 mg/litre

39

Residual free chlorine

Not more than 0.2 mg/litre

40

Pesticide Residues

Below detectable limits

41

"Alpha" activity

Not more than 0.1 Bacquerel/litre

42

"Beta" activity

Not more than 1 pico curie/l (pCi)

43

Yeast and mould counts 1 250ml

Absent

44

Salmonella and Shigella 1 250ml

Absent

45

E.coli or thermotolerant bacteria 1 250ml

Absent

46

Coliform bacteria 1 250ml

Absent

47

Faecal Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus 1 250ml

Absent

48

Pseudomonas aeruginose 1 250ml

Absent

49

Sulphite reducing anaerobes 1 250ml

Absent

50

Vibriocholera and V.Parahaemolyticus 1 250ml

Absent

51

Aerobic Microbial count

The total viable colony count shall not exceed 100 per ml at 20`c t0 22`c in 72h on agar-agar or on agar-gelatin mixture, and 20 per ml at 37`c in 24 h on agar-agar.


It is needless to mention that water, a compound of Hydrogen and Oxygen is a precious natural gift which is very essential for survival of mankind including animals. The water used for potable purposes should be free from undesirable impurities. The water available from untreated sources such as Well, Boreholes and Spring is generally not hygienic and safe for drinking. Thus it is desirable and necessary to purify the water and supply under hygienic conditions for human drinking purpose. As the name implies, the mineral water is the purified water fortified with requisite amounts of minerals such as Barium, Iron, Manganese, etc. Which can be absorbed by human body. It is either obtained from natural resources like spring and drilled wells or it is fortified artificially by blending and treating with mineral salts. The mineral water shall be manufactured and packed under hygienic conditions in properly washed and cleaned bottles in sterilised conditions. The trend indicates that lightweight, resilient and affordable PET is increasingly the packaging medium of choice. Almost 7 out of every 10 litres of water now appears in PET - a significant increase from 6 litres as of 1998, and it still continues to grow. The packaged water market is essentially a one-way street. Non-refillables account for four out of every five litres. Consequently nonrefillable PET is very much the norm on a global scale. It is estimated that worldwide, 1.5 million tonnes of plastics (mostly PET) are consumed for the manufacture of different sizes of drinking water bottles. In India, out of 54,000 tonnes of PET produced locally, 12,500 tonnes go in for the manufacture of bottles for the packaged water industry. The PET bottle market in India is also expected to grow. The used PET bottles are disposable, their collection and recycling is a cause of concern to the industry, the consumers and the environment protection groups. However, in India, there is a PET recycling industry, with a capacity of 75,000 tonnes per annum. The PET waste is recycled into fibres. This is an effort to pre-empt a market situation that may arise a few years hence. Unfortunately sufficient safe potable water is not available everywhere in the country, either harmful chemical substances are found in the layers of earth which enter into water or it may be contaminated due to pathogenic micro-organisms. If such water is consumed, the body suffers from water born diseases. Due to this, it has become imperative to process and bottle safe potable water for the mankind in prevailing conditions. The demand for purified water becomes more during summer season. Although few companies have already entered in the bottling of safe potable water and mineralized water, but still huge gap is there in between demand and supply at all metropolitan-cities and towns. The product is widely accepted in offices, restaurants, railway stations, airport, bus stands, and hospitals and to some extent even in rich house-holds. So there is good scope for establishing the units for processing and bottling plain and mineralized drinking water in different parts of the country.

Table-1Gender classification

Gender

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Male

113

75.3

75.3

75.3

Female

37

24.7

24.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table1 explains the gender classification the among the respondents who were consuming packaged drinking water. The gender classification always gives a clear evidence for the agents, manufacturers and dealers to estimate the demand of packaged drinking water. In this study it is confined that 113 (75.3) Per cent of the respondents were male and the remaining 37 (24.7) per cent of the respondents were female. Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study. It was clear that the male were consuming more of packaged drinking water

Table - 2 Martial status

Martial status

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Married

60

40.0

40.0

40.0

Unmarried

90

60.0

60.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 2 describes the Martial status of the respondents who are consuming packaged drinking water. Out of the 150 respondents taken for study 60 (40.0) Per cent of the respondents were married and the remaining 90 (60.0) per cent of the respondents were unmarried.

Table – 3 Education qualifications

Education

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Secondary

3

2.0

2.0

2.0

Higher secondary

32

21.3

21.3

23.3

Under graduate

77

51.3

51.3

74.7

Post graduate

38

25.3

25.3

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 3 confirmed the education qualification of the respondents who are consuming packaged drinking water. Education qualification acts as a influencing variable in creating awareness of packaged drinking water. In this study it was confined that 3 (2.0) Per cent of the respondents education qualification was secondary, 32 (21.3) per cent have completed higher secondary, 77 (51.3) per cent graduates and the remaining 38 (25.3) per cent were post graduates respectively. Uneducated will not have adequate knowledge about the packaged drinking water, and creating awareness to them might increase the sales volume of packaged drinking waters.

Table – 4 - Occupation

Occupation

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Business man

39

26.0

26.0

26.0

Professional

38

25.3

25.3

51.3

Employee

25

16.7

16.7

68.0

House

13

8.7

8.7

76.7

Others

35

23.3

23.3

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 4 pictures the occupational status of respondents who were consuming packaged drinking water. The occupation gives the affordability of packaged drinking water. 39 (26.0) Per cent of the respondents were Business mans, 38 (25.3) Per cent of the respondents were professionals, 25 (16.7) per cent of the respondents were employee, 13 (8.7) per cent of the respondents were house wife's and the remaining 35 (23.3) per cent of the respondents were doing other sorts of occupation.  Business people were affordable to purchase packaged drinking water, than the other occupational categories.

Table -5- Family size

Family size

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

1-3 members

41

27.3

27.3

27.3

4-6 members

99

66.0

66.0

93.3

7 and above members

10

6.7

6.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 5 explains the family size of the respondents who are consuming packaged drinking water. It was learned that 41 (27.3) Per cent of the consumers have 1-3 members, 99 (66.0) per cent of the consumers were having 3-6 members and the remaining 10 (6.7) per cent of the consumers have more than 7 members in their family.

Majority of the consumers were having 3 – 6 members in the family.

Table – 6- Monthly income

Monthly income

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Up to 5000 Rs

19

12.7

12.7

12.7

5001-10000 Rs

48

32.0

32.0

44.7

10001-15000

48

32.0

32.0

76.7

15001-20000

32

21.3

21.3

98.0

Above 20001

3

2.0

2.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 3.6 explains the monthly income of the respondents. It gives a clear evidence for the agents, manufacturers and dealers to estimate the demand of packaged drinking water. In this study it was confined that 19 (12.7) Per cent of the respondents income was within Rs.5000, 48 (32.0) Per cent of the respondents income is between 5001and10000 Rupees, 48 (32.0) per cent of the respondents income is between 10001 to 15000 Rupees, 32 (21.3) per cent of the respondents income was between 15001 - 20000 and the remaining 3 (2.0) per cent of the respondents income is above 20001 Rupees.

When considering the income level of the respondents, majority of the consumer's income ranges between 5001 Rs to 10000 Rs

Table - 3.7- Type of water consumed

Type of water

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Packaged drinking water

40

26.7

26.7

26.7

Corporation supplied water

45

30.0

30.0

56.7

Purified water

62

41.3

41.3

98.0

Unpurified water

3

2.0

2.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 7 depicts the type of water consumed by the respondents. It gives clear evidence for the agents, manufacturers and dealers to estimate the demand of packaged drinking water. In this study it is confined that 40 (26.7) Per cent of the respondents consume packaged drinking water, 45(30.0) Per cent of the respondents consume corporation supplied water, 62 (41.3) per cent of the respondents purified water and the remaining 3 (2.0) per cent of the respondents consume unpurified water. A majority of the consumers consume purified water, it makes a clear idea that all the customers are having a good awareness regarding their health, hence the demand for packaged drinking water is high.

Table – 8 Awareness on packaged drinking water

Aware

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Aware

150

100.0

100.0

100.0


Table 8  demonstrate the respondents awareness towards the packaged drinking water. The awareness factor influences the buying behavior of the consumer. In this study it is confined that all the respondents who are taken for the study were aware of packaged drinking water. Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study. It is clear that all the respondents were aware of packaged drinking water.

Table – 9 Consumption Brand and Non Brand drinking water

Type of packaged water

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Brand

40

26.7

26.7

26.7

Non-Brand

45

30.0

30.0

56.7

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 9 explains the respondents consuming packaged drinking water. It could be understood from the study, 115 (76.7) Per cent of the consumers consume only branded drinking water and the remaining 35 (23.3) per cent of the consumers consumes non branded packaged drinking water. It is a information to all the manufacturers of packaged drinking water to make the untapped segment of consuming packaged drinking of non-brand.

Table - 10 Sources of awareness

Sources of awareness

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Friends

40

26.7

26.7

26.7

Family

25

16.7

16.7

43.4

Doctor

25

16.7

16.7

60.0

Advertisement

60

40.0

40.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 10 elaborates the source of awareness in purchasing package drinking water. The word of mouth marketing techniques is the best strategy to reach the minds of consumers. In this study it is confined that 40 (26.7) Per cent of the respondents have got awareness through their friends, 25 (16.7) Per cent of the respondents have got awareness by family members, 25 (16.7) per cent of the respondents have got awareness through doctor and the remaining 60 (40.0) per cent of the respondents have got awareness through advertisement. Through the advertisement media, the manufacturers of packaged drinking water have reached the minds of consumers.

Table – 11- Forms of advertisement

Media

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Banners

24

16.0

16.0

16.0

Notice bills

11

7.3

7.3

23.3

News papers/Magazines

30

20.0

20.0

43.3

Radio/Television

85

56.7

56.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 11 explains the form of advertisement made by the agents, manufacturers and dealers to increase the demand of packaged drinking water. In this study it was understood that 24 (16.0) Per cent of the respondents have got aware through awareness through banner advertisement, 11 (7.3) Per cent of the respondents have got awareness through notice bill advertisement, 30 (20.0) per cent of the respondents have got awareness through news paper/magazines advertisement and the remaining 85 (56.7) per cent of the respondents have got awareness through radio/television advertisement. Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study. It is clear that advertisement made through Radio/Television reaches the consumer mind.

Table – 12 Point of purchase

Attributes

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Brand

61

40.7

40.7

40.7

Quality

44

29.3

29.3

70.0

Price

26

17.3

17.3

87.3

Package size

6

4.0

4.0

91.3

Quantity

13

8.7

8.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 12 explains respondent's attitude while purchasing packaged drinking water. The educated and awarded consumers purchase various products by considering different brand attributes. In this study it is confined that 61 (40.7) Per cent of the respondents look for the aspect of brand, 44 (29.3) Per cent of the respondents expects quality, 25 (17.3) per cent of the respondents opt for reasonable price, 6 (4.0) per cent of the respondents look for package and the remaining 13 (8.7) per cent of the respondents were keen in the aspect of quantity. A majority of the respondents expects to buy a branded packaged water for their consumption

Table -13 Opinion regarding the price of packaged drinking water

Opinion

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Not important

25

16.7

16.7

16.7

Important

98

65.3

65.3

82.0

Very important

27

18.0

18.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 13 explains the importance of price among the respondents in buying packaged drinking water. The price factor rules the minds of consumers. In this study it is confined that 25 (16.7) per cent of the consumers have opined that price is not much important as purchase, 98 (65.3) per cent of the consumers have opined price was an important factor in buying decision and the remaining 27 (18.0) per cent of the consumers opines price is not important. A majority of the respondents have opined that price is an important factor on the purchase of packaged drinking water.

Table – 14 Satisfaction level of the consumers regarding packaged drinking water

Level of satisfaction

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Highly satisfied

18

12.0

12.0

12.0

Satisfied

130

86.7

86.7

98.7

Less satisfied

2

1.3

1.3

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 14 clearly explains the satisfaction level of the consumers who were consuming packaged drinking water. The higher the satisfaction level will influence the demand of packaged drinking water. In this study it is confined that 18 (12.0) Per cent of the consumers were highly satisfied, 130 (86.7) per cent of the consumers are satisfied and the remaining 2 (1.3) per cent of the consumers were less satisfied. Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study. It is clear that the majority of the consumers are satisfied with the packaged drinking water.  

Table –15 Type of package preferred by the consumer

Type of package

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Pet bottles

51

34.0

34.0

34.0

Bubble top

99

66.0

66.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 15 depicts the type of package preferred by the consumers who were consuming packaged drinking water. In this study it is confined that 51 (34.0) Per cent of the respondents prefer pet bottles and the remaining 99 (66.0) per cent of the respondents prefer bubble top. Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for the study, it is clear that bubble top package was mostly preferable by the respondents of packaged drinking water.  

Table - 16 Opinion on the convenient type of package drinking water

Opinion

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Convenient

137

91.3

91.3

91.3

Not convenient

13

8.7

8.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 16 shows the aspect of convenience of the consumers who were consuming packaged drinking water. It is confined that 137 (91.3) per cent of the respondents were convenient with the package and the remaining 13 (8.7) per cent of the respondents were not convenient with the package. Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study, it is clear that a majority of the consumers were feeling convenient with the package of drinking water.  

Table - 17 Availability of packaged drinking water

Opinion

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Available

132

88.0

88.0

88.0

Not available

18

12.0

12.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 17 explains the consumer's opinion on the availability of packaged drinking water. Out of 150 consumers who were consuming packaged drinking water, 132 (88.0) per cent of them are have opined that the packaged drinking water is easily available at all points and the remaining 18 (12.0) per cent of the consumers have opined that the packaged drinking water is not available.

Table - 18 Tenure of consuming packaged drinking water

Tenure

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Less than 1 year

21

14.0

14.0

14.0

1-5 years

54

36.0

36.0

50.0

6-10 years

54

36.0

36.0

86.0

11-15 years

20

13.3

13.3

99.3

More than 15 years

1

0.7

0.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table.18 elaborates the information of years of consumption of packaged drinking water.  In this study it is confined that 21 (14.0) Per cent of the respondents were consuming packaged drinking water for less than a year, 54 (36.0) per cent were consuming it for 1-5 years, 54 (36.0) per cent were consuming packaged drinking water between 6-10 years, 20 (13.3) per cent of the respondents are consuming for 11-15 years and the remaining 1 (0.7) per cent of the respondents were consuming for more than 15 years.  Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study, It is clear that the majority of the respondents were consuming packaged drinking water for 1 – 10 years.  

Table - 19 Place of purchase

Place of purchase

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Departmental store/super market

39

26.0

26.0

26.0

Dealer

54

36.0

36.0

62.0

Nearby petty shop

52

34.7

34.7

96.7

Grocery shop

5

3.3

3.3

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 19 explains where the respondents buy packaged drinking water. It gives a clear evidence for the agents, manufacturers and dealers to know how to distribute packaged drinking water. In this study it is confined that 39 (26.0) Per cent of the respondents buy from departmental store/super market, 54 (36.0) Per cent of the respondents buy through dealers, 52 (34.7) per cent of the respondents from near by petty shop and the remaining 5 (3.3) per cent of the respondents purchase in grocery shops.

Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study. It is clear that majority of the consumer buy packaged drinking water through dealers.  

Table - 20 Opinion of delivery

Opinion

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Prompt delivery

104

69.3

69.3

69.3

No prompt delivery

46

30.7

30.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 20 states the opinion of consumer about the prompt delivery of packaged drinking water. From the study it was confined that 104 (69.3)Per cent of the consumers have got prompt delivery of packaged drinking and the remaining 46 (30.7) per cent of the respondents does not get prompt delivery of packaged drinking water. Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study. It is clear that the majority of the consumers were getting prompt delivery of packaged drinking water.  

Table - 21 Litres of water consumed

Litres of consumption

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Less than 100 litres

16

10.7

10.7

10.7

100-200

12

8.0

8.0

18.7

200-300

45

30.0

30.0

48.7

300-400

29

19.3

19.3

68.0

400-500

37

24.7

24.7

92.7

Above 500

11

7.3

7.3

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 21 explains the litres of consumption on packaged drinking water purchased for a month. It is a clear evidence for the agents, manufacturers and dealers to estimate the demand of packaged drinking water. In this study it is confined that 16 (10.7) Per cent of the respondents purchase less than 100 litres per month, 12 (8.0) Per cent of the respondents purchase 100 - 200 litres, 45 (30.0) per cent of the respondents purchase 200 - 300, 29 (19.3) per cent of the respondents for purchase 300 - 400, 37 (24.7)per cent of the respondents purchase 400 - 500 and the remaining 11 (7.3) per cent of the respondents purchase above 500 litres. Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study. It is clear that a majority of consumers purchase between 200 - 300 litres of packaged drinking water a month.

Table - 22 Reasons for preferring packaged drinking water

Reason

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Cumulative percent

Health

94

62.7

62.7

62.7

Prestige

28

18.7

18.7

81.3

Scarcity of water

28

18.7

18.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Table 22 explains the purpose of why the consumer prefers packaged drinking water. It gives a clear evidence for the agents, manufacturers and dealers to estimate the demand of packaged drinking water. In this study it is confined that 94 (62.7) per cent of the consumers prefer packaged drinking water for health, 28 (18.7) per cent of the consumers prefer for prestige issue and the remaining 28 (18.7) per cent of the consumers prefer due to scarcity of water. Among the consumer consuming packaged drinking water who were taken for study, it is clear that health is the purpose of preferring of packaged drinking water.

Rank analysis for the factors which has induced to buy the particular brand

Factors

Average mean

Rank

Physical characteristics
Attractive package
Brand name
Advertisement
Easy availability
Price
Health factors

4.12
2.18
5.13
3.04
3.07
4.98
5.49

4
7
2
6
5
3
1


From the above table it could be understood that the factor Health has secured first rank with the an average of mean of 5.49, second, third, fourth rank are secured by the factors like Brand name, Price, Physical characteristic with the average mean of 5.13, 4.98, 4.12 respectively and fifth, sixty, seventh are secured by the factors like Easy availability, Advertisement, Attractive package with the average mean of 3.07, 3.04, 2.18 respectively. In the study it could be confined that Health is the majority factor influencing in purchase of packaged drinking water.

Findings of the study

* Among 113 males respondents, 50 males where influenced by the attribute brand, 38 males were influenced by quality and 45 are influenced by price, package size and quantity respectively. Out of 37 female respondents, 11 female were influenced by brand and quantity each and 15 females are influenced by price, quality and package size respectively. From the above the table it could be inferred that there is a significant relationship between gender and influencing factor in buying packaged drinking water.

* It is interesting that respondents who were taken for study were aware of packaged drinking water and 60 respondents were aware by advertisement, 40 have got awareness by friends and the balance of 50 have got awareness by family and doctor.

* Among 150 respondents 51 respondents prefer pet bottles and from the 51 respondents 43 were convenient in using pet bottles and other 8 were not convenient with bubble to containers and among 99 respondents prefer bubble top, 94 respondents were convenient and other 5 were not convenient. From the above table it could be inferred that there is a significant relationship between package and convenience of packaged drinking water

* It could be understood that the factor Health has secured first rank with the an average of mean of 5.49, second, third, fourth rank are secured by the factors like Brand name, Price, Physical characteristic with the average mean of 5.13, 4.98, 4.12 respectively and fifth, sixth, seventh are secured by the factors like Easy availability, Advertisement, Attractive package with the average mean of 3.07, 3.04, 2.18 respectively. In the study it could be confined that Health is the majority factor influencing in purchase of packaged drinking water.

* The product characteristics enjoys a predominate place in the minds of consumer while accounting for purchase. The satisfaction level of the consumer is completely vested on the attributes of the product on considering the factors such as price, alternative and importance. It could be observed through factor analysis. The extraction value of the above set factors had an extraction value of 0.997, 0.690, 0.689 respectively and while considering the total variance, the squared loadings were up to 79.21 per cent and compound matrix pictures that factor of price and alternative can be grouped together as "confetti on product realization" with a factor loading of 0.830, 0.828 respectively. 

* While considering the level of satisfaction on the factor price it could be observed that out of the 8 factors considered for the study it was understood that cumulative factor of rotation matrix was accounted to 63.867 per cent and rotation matrix on communalities clearly explains that sales promotion, sales point, packaging, availability of information has accounted with an extraction value of 0.768, 0.771, 0.707, 0.697 respectively from the rotated compound matrix. The factor such as availability of information, packaging, sales point can be grouped together as "point of purchase"

Suggestion:

* As the drinking water is very essential, the manufactures should concentrate on the factors of quality, so that the proposition of buying packaged drinking water will get increase.

* The water is sourced by the manufactures by the nearby rivers and wells; hence proper water treatment has to be made.

* The aspect of price has been always the influencing factor on purchase for common ma, different slabs of price has been fixed by different manufacturers, but a common proportion of price has to fix on account of different packed liters of bottles.

* The usage of packaged drinking water has made significant impact on the minds of normal man and business class people; hence care should be taken to ensure to preserve the color, taste and necessary nutrients in the packaged drinking water.

Conclusion:

As the failure of monsoon has highly thrift the common public to pressure water by large. The advent of packaged drinking water has gained popularity in many of the corporate, living rooms and in flats. Medical practitioners also suggest common public to drinking purified waters to ensure good physical and mental health. The town has been stuffed with numerous shops witnessing huge market completely relies on packaged drinking water to quench thirst, hence there lies a profound demand of the packaged drinking water to quench thirst. If proper plans, strategies are made; there will be an absolute tapping of market can be made enhancing a positive attitude on the minds of common public.
 


Dr. G.B. Karthikeyan
Asst. Professor
Mr. T.M.R surya vardhan
Research Scholar
Department of Management Studies
Hindusthan College of Srts and Science
Coimbatore
 

Source: E-mail November 2, 2010

          

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