Technology Transfer in Apparel Industry: A Study of Sanganer Printing sector of Rajasthan


Suresh Kumar Sharma
Asst. Professor
Hemlata Manglani
Asst. Professor
Department of Economics
Central University of Rajasthan


Printing sector of India includes various places like Bagru, Sanganer, Barmer, Ajmer, Kota, Jodhpur, Udaipur in Rajasthan,  Bhuj, Jamnagar, Ahmedabad in Gujarat, Indore, Mandsore, Neemach in Madhya Pradesh, Kumbarnam, Tanjore, Tuni, Kodalikaruppur, Chennai in Tamilnadu and Bastar in Chhatisgarh.

This sector has a vital role increasing the growth rate of India, but facing the competition of China, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Israel in the international market. The biggest threat of this sector is the pricing which is higher than other apparels of India as well as other countries. But this sector has special features to attract the international buyers and has lot of opportunities to increase the share with new markets like Caribbean Sea, South Africa and Latin American countries. Total share of the India in the apparel exports is only 3.75% whereas Rajasthan, specifically Jaipur has 0.75% contribution in this where majority of exports is involved from printing apparels.1

This sector decorates the clothes with traditional designs of art and culture of Rajasthan. Hand block printing is a reputed art of Rajasthan.  Screen printing is a cost effective technique of printing sector.

Each region has different style of printing method like direct style, discharge style, resists style,block , inkjet, tie and die, spray, Batik and kalmkari etc. Rajasthan printing is famous for hand block, resist and kalmkari style of printing. Some of the region use material which is locally available. Gujarat and Rajasthan style of printing is quite similar because these are the neighbor states.

Sanganer printing sector is started printing with machineries while Bagru is still manufacturing these printing apparels through handmade process. Screen printing, hand block printing and inkjet printings are such type of printing apparels.

The National Strategy for Manufacturing prepared by the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has indicated that the decade 2006-2015 will be the decade of Manufacturing for India, with the aim of an average growth rate of 12 14 percent in manufacturing. It has also been suggested that the policies of Government should focus on the growth of labor intensive sectors (like Handicrafts), which also enjoy a competitive advantage. To provide an impetus to the growth of this industry, there is need for substantial augmentation in the overall Plan allocations for the Handicrafts sector, based on the felt needs of different segments of the sector. Sanganeri printing is the finest art of Rajasthan which has international demand since many years. Many exporters and manufacturing units and employment is depends on this sector, slowly and gradually technology is taking place in this sector. The joint ventures and innovation is also coming much faster. The study is analyzing the sector performance from year 2005 to 2010 including the effect of financial crisis. This study is important to investigate the growth and the contribution of this sector in the Rajasthan state in terms of pricing, strategy to increase the international exports. This will also examine the use of technology, innovation, promotion and pricing on export volume of sanganer printing arts by taking results through ANOVA.  This study also the future perspective and growth path of this sector that how the demand is affected with these indicators of strategies.

As suggested by A.K.Singh, chairman of working group and secretary, ministry of textiles (Report of working group from planning commission, December 1, 2006) Indian traditional apparel and handloom sector need a prior attention to focus on innovation, research and development to enhance exports at the international level because this sector has a bright future opportunity and this plays an important role in overall income and employment generation of the country.

Technology in Apparel Industry

CAD technology in the apparel field of application 1. Modern CAD technology brand clothing collar city of textile and clothing industry, designers of computer graphics processing power of knowledge than later, CAD technology is born in the early 80s, at present, the domestic outer garment CAD software more foreign garment CAD technology to the U.S. Gerber (GERBER, the most famous corporate systems, in addition, the French Lectra (LECTRA) systems, heavy machinery industry Co., Ltd. Tokyo, Japan (JUKI) the system also has been more widely used, while Spain has INVESTER, Canada PAD, there is the United States SGI, Germany, Assyst, Japan's Toray, Nissyo, Switzerland, Alexis and other foreign garment CAD system technology is more mature. China's garment CAD technology Although the gradual expansion of the application, but in the medium-sized enterprises have not reached more than 20% of small garment manufacturers to use less. our own apparel CAD is based on the introduction and assimilation of the development, there are currently more mature ARISA, tink , Sunrise, AGCO, Woodman, Hua Yi and so on. the existing garment CAD system includes a fitting system, design system, pattern design system, Grading and marker systems, automatic spreaders cutting systems, product information and Market information management systems. 2. modern clothing collar town CAD  technology application capabilities to the heavy manual labor simple, labor-saving and practical space saving; simplifies the design of artwork by the fabric to the actual conversion process, and can be modified at any time during the design process; to simplify archived save file space, re-use archiving solution, reducing the cost of garment processing; accelerate time to market, enhance corporate image, enhance their competitive advantage; accelerate effective among the various departments communication; predict the production data and production plans, lower inventory of funds used; effectively with the international market, facilitate the international data transmission; reduce administrative work, effective data management and data search; improve rapid response capabilities, improving efficiency and economic benefits. According to statistics, the use of CAD technology company gains in the following areas 90% of the users improve the accuracy of product design; 78% of users to reduce the product design and processing errors; 76% the user to shorten the product development cycle; 75% of users to increase productivity; 70% of the users to lower the production cost. 3. CAD applications in modern apparel heresy (1) can not be blindly used to make the best use of many companies is that CAD a high-tech tool that can show strength, knowledge is not deep, so blindly, can not make the introduction of the CAD system to function well and cause the device to idle waste of money CAD system has limitations, not a panacea , should be targeted to choose from, so CAD system to better play in the enterprise effectiveness. (2) lack of capacity garment CAD system automation is still no substitute for human thinking, mainly in some ways to achieve easy and fast. style clothing design software design is less than the true expression of style painting, not exactly the true proportion by drawing, sample simple expression can not be precise; system, pushing Edition technology system, promoting a model and fashion design effect, between the sample there is no precise docking; nesting material utilization rate is not as good as the old and experienced technicians, automation capabilities garment CAD technology is not perfect, there is much room for development. CAD technology in the clothing trends in the field 1. Modern Apparel CAD technology leading the city relatively urgent problems, the current apparel CAD is the most mature technology Grading, nesting functions, the most used clothing business is also this part of the feature, which effectively shorten the design cycle, greatly reduce the workload of the designer, but a version of the function has not radically improved, or not directly under the style renderings can generate a model, can not achieve a real sense of the play version of automation, CAD plate, and the proportion of the existing formula for Setting the passing rate is low for narrow, so we should design in stepwise regression formula for a more reasonable ratio; other material to improve the utilization rate of discharge is one of the issues need to be solved. CAD technology, the real effect of three-dimensional display clothing The implementation is a hot research, sample design system in Japan Toray three-dimensional human body model is designed so that two-dimensional and three-dimensional garment corresponding relationship is established between the human body. made according to the set size model, the proportion of clothing into a real try on a virtual model, combined with the structure and properties of real fabric, the performance closest to the real effect, on the effects of evaluation and revision, given vector function of three-D effect, make the clothes show the real effect, eliminating the need production like clothing links both improve efficiency and avoid waste, reduce costs, this problem will Apparel CAD technology to solve a huge leap forward. other software compatibility between the needs to be improved also, so you can make up for the lack of a software function. Recently, Lectra company has introduced OPENCAD open modular software, not only within the company as a system, and its system is compatible with non-Lectra Systems 2.. modern clothing leading CAD technology in the future development prospect of the city at present, Gerber's apparel CAD IBMPC for the host system Acumark, represents the new generation of garment CAD system development structure of the system uses the computer workstation, high-speed Ethernet communications with each other, cutting through the network automatically, the cell production system, management information systems and other CAD / CAM system is connected together to form a computer integrated manufacturing system CIMS. Spain Inves (IPS) features the company highlighted the performance of clothing systems in the application of cutting-edge artificial intelligence and robotics technology, also developed cost management, sewing, warehouse storage management integrated system, that is, clothing CIMS; University of Geneva and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology fashion design system has a three-dimensional garment design to reflect the effect of wearing apparel, dressing models can simulate the actual walking; Japanese heavy machinery industry, clothing design company computer system uses the basic form of decentralization of information, in different locations to achieve systematic and information network; U.S. ComPuterDeign lnc. Company D fashion design system can simulate different three-dimensional fabric drape effect, generate real-time effect of wearing apparel plans to achieve 360 rotation, from all dress different aspects of observing the effect of the model. CIMS system can design, production, management, quality control and financial management, human resources management, marketing and other operational aspects of the integration of all the future should be able to be collected from the information and statistics - style design - plate specimen should be amended subsection - to push Edition - Crop Production - Logistics supply - Sales management - information to the rapid adjustment of the step design. With the computer science and information technology is developing rapidly, clothing CAD technology is developing at a rapid pace, intelligence, integration, network of modern garment CAD technology is still the general trend of future development, will greatly promote the development of garment industry, to enhance the productivity of the apparel industry to make greater contribution.

Gerber Technology provides an extensive line of integrated computer hardware and software systems to the sewn-goods and flexible goods industries. These systems significantly improve the efficiency of information management, product and pattern design, grading and marker making/nesting, material spreading and cutting processes. The company offers automation solutions to a variety of industries including apparel, transportation, furniture, composites and industrial fabrics.

Graphics (Germany) is a software for pattern construction, grading and layplanning running on standard Personal Computers under Windows95 and above. It contains an extensive range of functions for pattern cutting and modification and is available at a very competitive price. Therefore, GRAFIS is in use in industry as well as in trade and education.

Infomax Corporation  has established itself as a reliable applied technology provider, specializing in solving design and pre-production problems for Garment Center businesses.

INVESTRONICA SISTEMAS is a Spanish company created in 1980, specializing in the development of CAD design tools (Computer Assisted Design), CAM systems (Computer Assisted Manufacturing) and CIM projects (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) for the apparel and upholstery industries, as well as for others such as automobile, aeronautics, etc. INVESTRONICA SISTEMAS belongs to the INDUYCO Group, one of the largest apparel companies in Europe. Its 1999 production capacity was in excess of 12,500,000 garments. INDUYCO is the main supplier to its own major shareholder, EL CORTE INGLES, one of the biggest distribution holding groups in Europe.

Lectra is a world leader in the design, manufacturing and distribution of software and hardware dedicated to the major industrial users of textiles, leather and other soft materials, supplying a comprehensive range of associated services for the development of complete solutions, from product design to manufacture to retailing.  Lectra, a leading technology provider to the fashion industry offers a wide range of software, automated cutting systems and high value-added services covering the entire value chain, from design through manufacturing to retailing. Lectra Fashion PLM (Product Lifecycle Management), specifically designed for fashion companies, integrates process optimization with collections lifecycle management and includes modules for line planning, creative collection development, product data management, product engineering, and workflow management. Lectra Kaledo Collection, which shares a common database platform within PLM, encourages artistic creativity while structuring the collection creation process and facilitating the exchange of information internal and external to the design environment. Lectra Kaledo Textile is a suite of software for the textile designing processes of Print, Knit and Weave that further facilitates the exchange of information internal and external to the design environment. Lectra serves over 20,000 customers in more than 100 countries.

  • Pattern Making Software
  • PLM Software (Fashion PLM)
  • Textile Design Software
  • Fashion Technology

Technology for Clothing Manufacturers

Patternmaking Software

Garment details, such as grading patterns, are created on computerized patternmaking software. The patternmaker needs garment specifications to plug into the software; the computer then draws the pattern according to these dimensions. Grading, which refers to patterns being increased or decreased to a different size, is also included in this type of software. Using this software, the patternmaker avoids having to make each graded pattern manually. It saves the designer the grading expense, and it also saves the manufacturer and factory valuable production time.

Computerized Design Images

Designers use computerized software to create images and silhouettes. Apparel design software offers different features (known as drawing tools), including linear and shaped drawing, color, fabric textures, pattern repeats and stitching detail. These tools save the designer time since she doesn't have to manually create technical sketches (also known as flats or black-and-white sketches). Computerized design software also ensures a clear outline and definition of each image, showing exact garment production detailing. These flats are attached to production packages, which are submitted to the factory for garment production.


Screen-printed images can't be developed without a graphic design. Computerized graphics programs enable artists to add different textures and finishes. These tools save the artist manual labor as well as time. Outlines, colors and sizing are precise and clearly defined for the screen-printer; the color selection is also generated by specific codes, which a screen-printer needs to mix colors for the screen.


Once the designer selects the graphics to produce, screen-printers have computerized programs that separate the graphics by color. Each facility uses different programs, machines and materials (e.g., film or color palettes) for production. These separate screens are generally permanent for an unlimited amount of screen-printing. Designers and their sales teams are able to repeat graphics and save screen development charges once the screen has already been made. Generally, screen-printers save the already-made screens at their facility for future printing, referred to as reorders.


The designer incorporates a special design feature into each sketch; each design feature requires a different type of technological program and machine to produce. For example, adding special design features such as embossing, flocking or foil requires the use of die-cut machines. The die-cut pattern is designed in the apparel design software and transferred to the die-cut facility with the specified finish.The design is then precut and applied onto the garment with precision cutting; the garment comes out exactly the same each time it's produced.

1. Apparel Export Promotion Council, Jaipur

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Source: E-mail March 31, 2011


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