The role of trainers in empowering women in Kerala with reference to REACH


By

Dr.R.Jubi
Academic Head
Ms. Shinija Nair
Resource Person
REACH
Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
 


Abstract

Empowering Women aims to inspire women with the courage to break free from the chains of limiting belief patterns and societal or religious conditioning that have traditionally kept women suppressed and unable to see their true beauty and power. This section offers self help tools, information, encouragement and inspirational quotes and sayings for and by women to use as a guide on the journey of Reclaiming their Power.  Women are encouraged to see and bring forth the beauty and strength within themselves, to be inspired to be the best they can be, and to let their spirit shine through. For those of you who are in challenging circumstances, the words here-in can help you find some peace and some strength to begin to turn your life around. The strength of a woman exists in herself, but the opportunities should be given so as to exploit the strength and to identify the exact phases of a woman. The specific strength should be identified by different aspects so as to develop her and to get the exact power a lady. The chances are there but they should work hard so as to develop her to become self dependent and become one of the powerful members of the society.

Key words

Empowering Women, Reclaiming their Power, inspirational quotes etc.

Introduction

Empowering Women aims to inspire women with the courage to break free from the chains of limiting belief patterns and societal or religious conditioning that have traditionally kept women suppressed and unable to see their true beauty and power. This section offers self help tools, information, encouragement and inspirational quotes and sayings for and by women to use as a guide on the journey of Reclaiming Their Power. The women in Kerala are having almost all the skills, but the opportunities are less or they are not getting any exposure. In this scenario Kerala State Women's Development Corporation is playing a key role in developing the skills of women in Kerala. The main initiative taken by KSWDC is REACH, which has taken initiative in empowering women of Kerala.

Objectives of the study

  • To analyze the initiative taken the trainers of REACH in women empowerment.
  • To analyze the impact of training of  REACH in candidates
  • To check the job satisfaction in the case of placed candidates.

Methodology-Universe

The universe of the study includes all the candidates who have joined for the course at REACH for all the four types of courses. Once again it was very effective in collecting the details from all those persons who were capable of providing the details regarding the courses run art REACH

Sampling

Convenient sampling was carried out in this social project. Since it was very difficult to get the candidates of different parts of the Kerala state, those who are available were approached for discussion. The collected data were coded and further analysis was done.

PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS METHOD

In percentage analysis method, classification and tabulation of the result from the questionnaire is done first. Then the percentage of respondents' responds for each question in the questionnaire is found. Then these results are shown by the use of diagram. The diagrams mainly include pie charts. After the analysis the results are interpreted. Simple percentage method = No. of Respondents / Sample Size x 100

By conducting a detailed interview among the candidates those who have undergone training and obtained placement from REACH, with the help of a questionnaire a lot of informations were collected. The samples were selected from different districts as well as different parts of the cities as well as remote areas. It was really a thrilling experience to collect different kinds of data regarding the problems, risks, and experiences of the candidates.

The analysis was very effective in the sense it clearly pictured to what extent the training and placement provided in REACH is contributing in Women empowerment in Kerala.The interview was very effective since it was face to face interaction. From the analysis the following details were collected.

Respondent's opinion regarding the backbone of the motivation behind training programme

Sl.No

Group

No. of samples

Percentage

1

Family

34

45.3

2

Friends

22

29.3

3

Relatives

10

13.3

4

Social welfare officers 

5

8

5

Others

4

5.3

 

                   Total     75


Respondent's opinion regarding the backbone of the motivation behind training programme.


Respondent's opinion regarding the backbone of the motivation behind training programme.

Inference

During the analysis it is clear that most of the candidates are having 'family' as their backbone of the professional carieer.They are getting almost all the support from the family members. In the case of 5 samples social welfare officers are providing the main support. This is mainly found in the samples of rural areas.

Respondent's comment regarding the extent of changes after joining the training programme

Sl.No

Category

No. of samples

Percentage

1

Yes

73

97.3

2

No

2

2.7

 

 Total              75

 

Respondent's comment regarding the extent of changes as they have undergone.


Fig for respondent's comment regarding the extent of changes as they have undergone

Inference

A major portion of the total population (97.3%) has made appreciable changes in their professional career. These changes include the overall development like personality development, self improvement, confidence level improvement etc.

Respondent's satisfaction in the profession

Sl.No

Category

No.  of samples

Percentage

1

Satisfied

64

85.3

2

Not satisfied

11

14.7

 

         Total      75

 

Respondent's satisfaction in the profession


Respondent's satisfaction in the profession

Inference 

While analyzing the satisfaction in the business the main category of candidates said," we are satisfied in the job." This in turn shows that the satisfaction is based not only on the profit; but also on other factors such as job satisfaction, working atmosphere etc.The 'Not satisfied 'group includes 14.7%and here the main reason is place constraints.

TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis is considered as the principal instrument in research. Its main function is to suggest new experiments and observations. Hypothesis testing enables us to make probability statements about population parameters. Actually it is a predictive statement, capable of being tested by scientific methods.

In the present analysis the following hypotheses were considered

1. Grooming is essential for obtaining the job
2. Profits from the job are making a candidate a satisfied one.
3. Candidates are interested in Government jobs

For these statements to be true the following analysis is essential. Here for the existence of the statement the analysis is based on the formation of null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis

Grooming is essential for obtaining the job

The first hypothesis is ''Grooming is essential for obtaining the job"For the analysis of this hypothesis a null hypothesis (Ho) is considered, which can be regarded as Grooming is essential for getting the job.One alternative hypothesis (Ha) is also considered as '' Grooming is not essential for obtaining the job ''During the analysis the total population explained their view in two ways. Nearly 97.3% of the total population explained that they have made changes and they are considering modifications as an essential part of the life style as well as to get the job. This is a clear support to the null hypothesis (Ho).In the analysis only 2.7% of the total population is considering modifications as not so necessary. In this situation we can accept the null hypothesis (Ho).

"Profits from the job are making a candidate a satisfied one"

The null hypothesis (Ho) for this statement is profit is the key factor of satisfaction. Its alternative hypothesis (Ha) is profit is not making the employees satisfied. During the analysis 85.3% are satisfied in their carieer.This particular group were once again analyzed for the factors of satisfaction; and it is clear that profit is not alone the basis, but it is a contributing factor. The other factors are job satisfaction, working environment etc. Thus the major group is rejecting the null hypothesis. Hence from the analysis it is clear that the main category is accepting the alternative hypothesis (Ha) "profit alone is not a key factor of satisfying a candidate."

Rank order Analysis

Under this method the respondents are asked to rank their choices. This method is easier and faster than any other method. A complete ranking at times is not needed in which the respondents may be asked to rank only their first, say four choices, while the number of over all items may be more than four say 10 or 20 or more. To secure a simple ranking of all items involved we simply total rank values received by each item.Eventhough it is a simple method it has lot of disadvantages; the data obtained through this method are ordinal and hence rank ordering is an ordinal scale with all its limitations. Then there may be the problems of respondents becoming careless in assigning ranks particularly when there are many items.

In the analysis rank ordering is utilized in the following situations.

Rank the advices that the women work force wish to hand over to the new generation. For the purpose of ranking the following options were provided.

1. You should have commitment to job   
2. You must inspire others to become self dependent
3. You must work hard until the goal is reached
4. You must have proper planning in your life
5. You should be ready to face any consequences

For the purpose of analysis the following ranking scales were provided.

For the first option  ---5
For the second option ---4
For the third option ---3
For the fourth option 2
For the fifth option ---1

For the above-mentioned case the following chart was prepared for the purpose of analysis

Sl.No  of Advices

First preference (weightage  5)

Second preference (weightage  4)

Third preference (weightage  3)

Fourth preference (weightage 2)

Fifth preference (weightage  1)

Total

1

18x5

36x4

12x3

5x2

4x11

284

2

8x5

12x4

11x3

14x2

30x1

179

3

40x5

20x4

5x3

5x2

5x1

310

4

2x5

3x4

5x3

40x2

25x1

142

5

15x5

10x4

35x3

10x2

5x1

245


Table for rank ordering the advices that the respondent's wish to hand over to the new one

Based on the information collected a bar diagram is prepared.


X-axis the serial number of advices
Y-axis the effectiveness of advices in 50-point scale

Fig for rank ordering the advices that the respondent's wish to hand over to the new generation

Inference

From the table as well as from the bar diagram it is clear that the maximum ranking is given to the third option which is "You must work hard until the goal is reached". This shows the strong decision making capability of the candidates to reach their goal. The second highest ranking is given to the first option "You should have commitment to job". This once again shows that the candidates are not simply profit motives; they are trying to maintain the relationship with other officials. So these are the main factors which are essential to the candidates to succeed in the venture.

Chi square test

It is an important test amongst the several tests of significance developed by statisticians. Chi-square written, as '' is a statistical measure used in the contest of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to a theoretical variance. The test is infact a technique through the use of which, it is possible for all researchers to

--test the goodness of fit
--test the significance of association between two attributes
--test the homogeneity or the significance of population variance.

In the analysis this technique is used in the following situations

Reasons for being an employee

For this analysis also the following '' table was prepared

Respective sample

Observed
frequency
Oi

Expected frequency
Ei

Oi Ei = X

X2

X2 / Ei

1

31

25

6

36

1.44

2

27

25

2

4

0.16

3

17

25

-8

64

2.56


Chi-square table for identifying the reason for selecting a job

Comparing the calculated and table values, we can find that the calculated value is less than the table value.

From the above table the following informations are collected

Calculated value of '' = 4.16
Degrees of freedom in the given sample =2

The table value of ''for 2 degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance =5.99

Comparing the calculated and table values of '', we can find that calculated value is less than the table value and such have arisen due to fluctuations of sampling .The result thus support the hypothesis and it can be concluded that the reason for being an employee is unbiased. Analysis of the advices that the candidates wish to handover to the new generation.

Respective sample

Observed
frequency
Oi

Expected frequency
Ei

Oi Ei = X

X2

X2 / Ei

1

83

25

58

3364

134.56

2

81

25

56

3136

125.4

3

68

25

43

1849

73.96

4

74

25

49

2401

96

5

69

25

44

1936

77.4


Chi-square for analyzing the advices that the candidates wish to handover to the new generation.

For the analysis purpose the above table was prepared and with the help of this the following informations are deduced.

The calculated value of    =387.32
The degrees of freedom in the given sample=4

The table value of for 4 degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance =9.488

If a comparison is made between the table value and calculated values it is well clear that the calculated value is higher than the table value. This supports the fact that the output is not a random one, but it has a strong back ground. Thus the advices that the entrepreneurs wish to hand over will be on the basis of the experiences.
 

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Source: E-mail July 4, 2011

          

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