A Study on Stress among School Teachers with Special Reference to Madurai District


By

Dr.J.Vijayadurai
Associate Professor
Department of Business Administration
NMSSVN College
Madurai

P.Jerlin Rupa
Assistant Professor
Department of Business Administration
Arul Anandar College
Madurai
 


Abstract:

Teaching is becoming more challenging as a profession and it is one of the most significant and visible profession in the world. Schools are as important as any other organisation in the world. These are tough times to be a teacher. The nature and organization of the job make teaching inherently difficult. Teachers face new challenges and opportunities from increasingly diverse and needy student populations. Demand on teachers develop new knowledge and skills t perform new tasks are rapidly. So too are expectations for school and teacher performance and accountability. Taken together, the characteristics and conditions of teaching present increasingly stressful situations for teachers and situations that may have positive or deleterious consequences for them and for their work with students. We framed this analysis with a conceptual and theoretical overview of psychological stress in the workplace, focusing particularly on organizational sources and consequences of stress. This overview draws primarily on literature from social psychology, organizational and industrial psychology, and organizational studies.

Keywords: Organisational stressors, Individual stressors, Role clarity, Role conflict.

Introduction

Hans Selye first introduced the concept of stress in to the life science in 1936. He defined stress as "The force, pressure, or strain exerted upon a material object or person which resist these forces and attempt to maintain its original state." Stress is ubiquitous in our society. It has become an integral part of everyday living. Stress is an unavoidable consequence of modern living. With the growth of industries, pressure in the urban areas, quantitative growth in population and various problems in day to day life are some of the reasons for increase in stress. Stress is a condition of strain that has a direct bearing on emotions, thought process and physical conditions of a person. Steers (1981) indicate that, "Occupational stress has become an important topic for study of organizational behavior for several reasons." 1. Stress has harmful psychological and physiological effects on employees, 2. Stress is a major cause of employee turnover and absenteeism, 3. Stress experienced by one employee can affect the safety of other employees, 4. By controlling dysfunctional stress, individual and organization can be managed more effectively.

The occupational role stress related to inter role distance, role stagnation, role expectation, role conflict, role erosion, role overload, role isolation, personal inadequacy, self role distance, role ambiguity and resource inadequacy. 

Undertaking the study among the school teachers is highly pertinent and relevant.  The  study  by  their  authors  entitled  "Study of Stress among School Teachers in Madurai District"  focused  on  the  basic  factors  viz.,  relationship with peer group, Satisfaction with the Pay ,  occupational stressors, Working  conditions and individual stressors. Taken together, these general conditions and current challenges present potentially stressful situations for teachers, situations that may have deleterious consequences for them and for their work with students.

Review of Literature:

Miles and Perrault (1976) identify four different types of role conflict: 1. Intra-sender role conflict 2. Inter sender role conflict. 3. Person- role conflict; 4. Role over load. The use of role concepts suggests that job related stress is associated with individual, interpersonal, and structural variables (Katz and Kahn, 1978; Whetten, 1978). The presence of supportive peer groups and supportive relationships with super visors are negatively correlated with R.C. (Caplan et al., 1964).

There is evidence that role incumbents with high levels of role ambiguity also respond to their situation with anxiety, depression, physical symptoms, a sense of futility or lower self esteem, lower levels of job involvement and organizational commitment, and perceptions of lower performance on the part of the organization, of supervisors, and of themselves (Brief and Aldag, 1976; Greene, 1972).

Madhu et al., (1990) studied the influence of antecedent factors on role stress. The antecedent factors studied were personal factors of the individual, leadership, and communicator style of the superior, job conditions and organizational factors. The results showed that personal factors had no influence on role stress. With regard to job conditions it was found that low autonomy, poor planning and insufficient feedback added to role stress. Organizational factors like good interpersonal relations, better division of labour, proper control and formalization were related to lower role conflict and role ambiguity. The leadership style of the superior had very low influence of role stress. In the communication fact, it was found that role stress was less for subjects who described their superiors as dynamic, expressive, impressive and good in written communication.

Singh et al., (1991) examined the effects of organizational role stress and locus of control on job involvement among bank staff employed by them. They found that low stress group of employees were highly involved in their job as against those in the high stress group. External locus of control group had lower job involvement compared with those with internal locus of control.

Palas and Adhikari (2008) in his study entitled 'Role stress among nurses in the efficient running of hospitals'. Ten types of role stresses were measured using modified version of ORS Scale. Role expectation conflict, inter –role distance and role over – load are the highest contributing factors that cause stress among the respondent, nurses in a government hospital. Half of the respondents are detected stressful. Both physiological and psychological (lack of enthusiasm, frustration, fatigue, indigestion and constipation) impacts of stress are found to be present among the stress.

Primary objective:

1. To understand and measure the occupational role stress as perceived by the teachers

Secondary objectives:

2. To find out whether the teachers' stress affects their social behavior.
3. To identify the causes for the stress faced by the teachers working in the schools.

Period of the Study 

The  study  was  conducted  for  a  period  of  6  months  from  July  to  December  2011.  The respondents were contacted and interviewed in the school premises during their leisure hours. 

Research Design:

The design used in this paper study is descriptive type.

Research Instrument 

A  structured,  non disguised  interview  schedule was  prepared  for  the  purpose  of  collecting the data. The factors of the study were drawn out from the related studies  and the statements of the schedule were framed representing the factors. These were  given shape in consultation with the field experts. 

Population profile and Sampling

The study was confined to Madurai district of Tamil Nadu. This district was selected keeping in mind that it is well endowed with school teachers. For the purpose of identifying organizational stressors in the school environment, twenty schools were selected. Out of twenty school, eleven were selected from the urban area and nine were selected from the rural area. It was decided to collect the necessary information from 60 teachers from each area. So total of 120 teachers were selected for the final study. Non –probability, convenient sampling method was used for the study. Respondents were given two weeks to answer their questionnaire.

Measurements

The predictor variables in this study were represented by four organizational variables namely conflict, alienation, work overload, and unfavourable work environment. These variables were measured  by a 5-point response format ranging from (1) "Strongly Disagree" to (5) "Strongly Agree" was utilized. The mean scores were computed by averaging the scores for all the items associated with a particular stressor. The moderating variable in this study relates to the personality dimension of neuroticism. This trait was assessed by  NEO Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). A 5-point response format ranging from (1) "Strongly Disagree" to (5) "Strongly Agree" was utilized. SPSS package has been used to analyse the data.

Tools for analysis:

Chi – square analysis, Correlation, One way ANNOVA and Regression.

Findings

Table 1 depicts profile of the respondents

Factors

Frequency

Percent

Mean

1.Gender
                           Male
                            Female

 
      12
     108


       10
       90


1.9

Standard Deviation: .3013

2. Age
                         Below 26
                         26 – 30
                         35 – 40
                         Above 40


60
     28
     24
       8


          50
          23
          20
          6.7


2.1
8.48

Standard Deviation: .1.3805

3.Marital Status
                       Married
                       Unmarried
                       Widow


68
48
4


56.7
40.0
3.3


1.5

Standard Deviation: .6736

4. Working Experience
                      Below 5 years
                      5 – 10 years
                      Above 12 years


80
28
12


66.7
23.3
10


1.433

Standard Deviation: .6703

5. Monthly Income
                    Below 10,000
                    Rs.10,000 – 20,000
                    Above 40,000


                             104
12
14


                             86.7
10
3.3


1.2333

                                                                                              Standard Deviation: .7640   


In terms of gender, more than half (10%) of the sample consisted of males with the remaining 90% being females. As for age, almost (50%) were below 26 years old and respondents (23 %) were between 26 -30 years old. Regarding marital status, a majority (56.7%) of respondents were married and (40%) being singles and the remaining (3.3%) are widows. As for working experience, 66.7% of the sample had been working for below 5 years. In terms of monthly income, 86.7% of the respondents receive below 10,000 as their salary.

Table 2 depicts the reliabilities of the survey instruments.

  R E L I A B I L I T Y   A N A L Y S I S   -   S C A L E   (A L P H A)

Reliability Coefficients

N of Cases =    120.0                    N of Items = 33

Alpha =    .7750


Inference:

As seen from Table 2, the instruments used in this study were reliable, with Coefficients ranging from 0.70 to 0.80, which exceeded the minimum acceptance level of 0.70 (Nunnally, 1978).

H01: There is no relationship between getting tiredness in the travel and satisfaction with the working hours

Table: 3 Calculation of X2 Test:

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

100.995

3

.000

Likelihood Ratio

137.849

3

.000

N of Valid Cases

120

   

Result: calculated value = 100.995, Table value = 7.81473 ( d.f is 3 with 5% level of significance)

Solution:  cal x2 > x2 tab

Interpretation:

The researcher concludes that there is significant relationship between getting tiredness in the travel and satisfaction with the working hours.

H02: Organizational stressors do not positively relate to job stress.

Table 4:  One way Analysis of Variance among the pressure level to show the good result and temper level when students are inattentive in class.

ANOVA

Temptress

df

SS

MS

Statistical Inference

Sig.

Between Groups

3

20.897

6.966

F = 47.615 >P

.000

Within Groups

116

16.970

.146

 

Total

119

37.867

     

P = 2.6802 at 5% level of significance.

Solution:  calculated value > tab value

Interpretation:

The researcher concludes that organizational stressors positively related to job stress.

Ho3: there is no significant relationship between freedom of work and impact of work in the family life.

Cross tabulation: 5

   

Impact of work in the family life

   

Total

   

To a great extent

To a certain extent

Not at all

 

Freedom of work

To a great extent

8

32

 

40

 

To a certain extent

12

20

48

80

Total

 

20

52

48

120


Results:

Value of co efficient of correlation = .428

It means a perfect substantial relationship between freedom of work and impact of work in the family life. So H03 gets rejected. Accept H1

H04: There is no adequate relationship between independent variables and Stress level while taking special class for slow learners.

Regression

Table: 6.1

Model

R

R Square

1

.597

.357


a  Predictors: (Constant), Years of Experience, Monthly income of the respondents, Marital Status, Gender, Age of the respondents

b. Dependent variable: Stress level while taking special class for slow learners.

Table 6.2

Model

R

R Square

1

.407

.166


a  Predictors: (Constant), Monthly income of the respondents, Gender, Age of the respondents

Result:

As seen in Table 6.1, when the five personal variables were entered into the regression equation in the first step, the coefficient of determination (R) was found to be 0.597. In step 2, by adding the three independent variables, R change (0.407) is significant. From the second regression model, it can be observed that control variables (working experience and marital status) did have significant influence on job stress. These results provided partial support for the alternate hypothesis of the study.

Conclusion and Suggestions for Future Research:

In conclusion, the contribution of this study rests on the identification of organizational-based stressors and the role played by the personality dimension of neuroticism as a moderator in the relationship between organizational stressors and job stress experienced by the teachers  at the workplace. Although several studies on job stress within the teachers context have been reported each of them differs in terms of the variables selected (organizational-based, personal-based, or personality-based), the instruments used, and sample. The present study did not aim to construct a complete model of job stress for teachers but merely to extend one's knowledge about the influence of organizational-based factors and neuroticism on the job stress.

Refernces:

1. Srivastava A.K., Management of occupational stress. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 1999, P.10
2. Hans Selye, The stress of life, Newyork: Mc – Graw Hill, 1956
3. James Quick, Jonathan Quick.D, Organisational Stress and prevention management, Newyork: McGraw Hill, 1984.

Webliography

www.wsworld.com
www.woodheadpublishing.com
www.citehr.com
www.thehrpractice.in
 


Dr.J.Vijayadurai
Associate Professor
Department of Business Administration
NMSSVN College
Madurai

P.Jerlin Rupa
Assistant Professor
Department of Business Administration
Arul Anandar College
Madurai
 

Source: E-mail February 27, 2012

          

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