Research Paper Entitled
"Stratagies for Tourism Development"
- Theoretical Study

Santhosh Kumar N
Koshys Institute of Management Studies



The word tourism encompasses all activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. These activities make demands for goods and services, and the establishments which provide such services are considered as part of the tourism industry. The tourism industry also includes establishments whose products are mainly sold to visitors, though they do not form a major share of tourist consumption. Several infrastructure sectors like power, telecommunication, water supply, roads and some production sectors like travel items, sports equipment, photographic materials, medicines and cosmetics are included in this category. The infrastructure for tourism thus includes basic infrastructure components like airports, railways, roads, waterways; amenities like electricity, water supply, drainage, sewerage, solid waste disposal systems and services and facilities like accommodation, restaurants, recreational facilities and shopping facilities. Planning for sustainable development of tourism, therefore, involves the integrated development of basic infrastructure and amenities along with all the tourism facilities in a balanced manner.

The political framework in Karnataka

The state government is responsible for law and order, land use, civic amenities, shops and establishments. Both the union government and the state Governments have departments and specialized agencies dealing with specific subjects and regulations. For example, the state Department of Tourism is concerned with the over-all coordination and planning of tourism development in the state, apart from undertaking tourism promotion and publicity abroad. It also provides some incentives and undertakes several developmental schemes. The Reserve Bank of India is a specialized agency dealing with foreign exchange regulations and granting automatic approvals to foreign investment and collaboration proposals.

Most of the delivery systems and infrastructure for tourism are in the hands of state governments. They control all factors of production, including land in their territories.

Tourism policy

A comprehensive tourism policy highlighting the importance of tourism and the objectives of tourism development for the country was promulgated by the Government in 1982. The policy envisaged developing many attractions in India for tourism through well-planned, well-defined and fully-integrated national programmes. It specified the responsibility for tourism development as a common endeavour of all agencies vitally concerned with tourism at central and state levels, including public and private sector enterprises; airlines, railways and road transport systems; municipal and local bodies as well as cultural and educational institutions. It further provided an action plan based on a "travel circuit" concept to maximize the benefits of tourism. The plan proposed to achieve intensive development of selected circuits, dispel the tendency of concentration in a few urban centers, encourage the diversification of tourist attractions and open economically-backward areas which have many tourist attractions.

Tourism was recognized as an industry by 1986 and became eligible for incentives and facilities, including tax incentives, subsidies, priorities in the sanctioning of loans by state financial institutions and preferences in providing electricity, water and sewerage connections.

A National Action Plan for Tourism was drawn up in 1992 and it envisaged an increase in the percentage share of tourist arrivals in India from 0.4 to 1 per cent of world arrivals within a period of five years. Employment in the tourism sector was also expected to double by the turn of the century. The basic strategy for increasing the tourist flow includes improvement of infrastructure facilities in identified circuits and destinations, development of special tourism areas, diversification of tourism products, development of pilgrim tourism and a package of incentives for attracting private investment to the tourism sector.

It is now being proposed to increase tourist arrivals to 5 million by the turn of the Karnataka state. This would mean substantial expansion of tourism infrastructure facilities like hotels, restaurants, tourist coaches, cars, air taxis, entertainment facilities and so forth. The strategy for achieving the state objective is to establish all inclusive "Special Tourism Areas" and undertake intensive infrastructure development for identified circuits and destinations.

Infrastructure Development Schemes

Since most infrastructure elements and the delivery systems are within the punier of the state Governments or private sector, tourism infrastructure is being developed mainly with financial assistance to state and by providing various incentives to private entrepreneurs. Specific schemes for which financial assistance is provided to the States include the following:

(a) Construction schemes

  • Forest lodges
  • Tented accommodation
  • Tourist complexes/tourist lodges
  • Wayside amenities
  • Mote 1sctafeterias/restaurants
  • Tourist reception centers
  • Pilgrim sheds/dormitories, etc. at pilgrimage centers
  • Public conveniences

(b) Tourist transport

  • Mini-buses, jeeps, elephants, etc. for wild life viewing
  • Cruise boats, ferry launchers, etc. for water transport
  • Tourist coaches in selected circuits
  • Special tourist trains

The most frequent pattern of funding which has continued over successive plan periods is known as "normal funding". Under this pattern, the Central Department of Tourism meets almost the entire expenditure, except the cost of land and interior decoration in the case of construction projects. A new method of funding by way of grant-in-aid towards project cost was introduced during 1992-1993. In this scheme, 28 per cent of the project cost is provided by the central government and 12 per cent is provided by the state government. The balance of 60 per cent has to be raised as a loan from financial institutions or banks. This method of funding is applicable to projects requiring large investments. It is expected that the state governments would be able to mobilize more resources from financial institutions for investment in tourism projects through this method.

Incentives to private entrepreneurs

Tourism-related activities have been declared as a priority sector for foreign investment. As a result, foreign equity participation in tourism projects is automatically allowed up to 51 per cent, and higher percentages of foreign equity can be approved on a case-by-case basis. Tourism industries are also eligible for a number of incentives, such as interest subsidy, income tax exemption, reduced customs duty, etc.

There are specific incentives being provided by the Central Department of Tourism. One specific incentive is for approved hotels up to the 3-star category and heritage hotels outside the four metro-cities which are eligible for an interest subsidy for loans from the Industrial Finance Corporation of India, Tourism Finance Corporation of India and State Financial Corporations. The rates of interest subsidy are (a) 5 per cent for 1 to 3-star category hotels in areas identified for intensive development; (b) 5 per cent for heritage hotels outside metropolitan areas; and (c) 3 per cent for all other 1 to 3-star category hotels outside metropolitan areas.

In order to encourage the owners of heritage properties to convert palaces, forts, hovels, etc. of any size into heritage hotels, a capital subsidy scheme was introduced since May 1993. Under the scheme, a capital subsidy of 10 per cent of the project cost or Rs.500,000, whichever is less, is available for developing any structure of 75 years or older as a heritage hotel. Domestic travel agents and tour operators are given assistance to develop markets abroad. Assistance is given for market research, promotional visits abroad, and so forth.

An Investment Facilitation Cell has been set up in the Department of Tourism to provide assistance to prospective entrepreneurs. The specific activities of the cell are:

    (a) Formulation of national investment policies related to tourism industries;

    (b) Coordination and integration of state policies on tourism;

    (c) Prepare investment profiles for each state in collaboration with the respective state Governments.

    Profiles will include information on identified priority centres for tourism development, details of existing infrastructure, expected demand, availability of land and other support services, agencies to be contacted, etc.;

    (d) Regular interactions with prospective entrepreneurs both within the country and abroad to promote investment in tourism;

    (e) Establishing linkages with embassies and other institutions to highlight investment opportunities in tourism;

    (f) Process investment proposals received from both local and foreign investors  and obtain approvals and clearances from various agencies;

    (g) Assist entrepreneurs to get import licences, finance, land, etc., by Co-ordinating with the respective agencies and the state governments; and

    (h) Provide technical assistance wherever required.

Product development

Karnataka has been mainly conceived as a cultural tourist destination, but it has diverse tourist attractions which need to be developed. A conscious policy has, therefore, been adopted to diversify and improve tourism products of India, including cultural tourist attractions.

The schemes implemented through state governments for product development are:

* Promotion of fairs and festivals, rural craft, melas, etc.
* Refurbishment of monuments and environmental planning;
* Development of roads;
* Development of airlines;
* Development of hotels :
* Development of rural infrastructures;
* Flood lighting/son et lumiere (SEL) shows;
* Development of pilgrim centres;
* Development of adventure sports facilities;
* Designation of special tourism areas; and
* Development of specific circuits through external aid.

State strategy for the development of tourism

State strategy for the development of tourism has recently been developed for synergizing the activities of different infrastructure sectors, the state governments and the private sector for tourism development. The specific components of the strategy include:

* Infrastructure development;
* Product development and diversification, including development of mega-tourism resorts;
* Entrepreneurial development and promotion of self-employment opportunities;
* Enhanced tourist facilitation;
* Human resources development;
* Research and computerization;
* Promotion and marketing;
* Environmental protection and cultural preservation;
* Provision of incentives; and
* Monitoring and evaluation and strengthening of organizations.


At the outset, in Karnataka tourism, infrastructure development paves a vital role to develop tourism globally. It attracts tourists from various places, able to generate revenues to the state government, develops employment opportunities and safeguards resources. However, infrastructure development not up to the mark in Karnataka, it has to be developed in such a way that every tourist must visit Karnataka and enjoy fruitfully.  Eventually Karnataka state tourism should concentrate rural tourism because rural tourism is back bone of the Karnataka's tourism.


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  • "Handbook of Karnataka, Karnataka The Tourist Paradise". Retrieved 2008-08-29.
  • 8.html Karnataka ranks among top five states in tourism: FICCI - OneIndia retrieved on 2006-6-10
  • "Alphabetical list of Monuments". Protected Monuments. Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 2007-06-13.
  • Correspondent (January 6, 2007). "Plan to conserve heritage monuments, museums". The Hindu (Chennai, India: The Hindu). Retrieved 2007-06-13.
  • "Archaeological Museum, Aihole (District Bagalkot, Karnataka)". Retrieved 2009-04-16.
  • "Chalukya". Retrieved 2009-04-16.
  • "Kalyani Chalukyan temples, Temples of Karnataka". Retrieved 2009-04-16

Santhosh Kumar N
Koshys Institute of Management Studies

Source: E-mail August 2, 2012


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