Functioning of Fair Price Shops under PDS in Madurai District
- An Overview


By
Dr.N.Subburaj
Principal
Padmavani Arts & Science College for Women
Salem-636011, Tamil Nadu
 


1. INTRODCTION

"Public Distribution System is an important service delivery mechanism in rural development. The basic objective of Public Distribution System is to ensure that essential articles of daily use are made available at reasonable prices to the public particularly the vulnerable sections both in urban and rural areas". The Public Distribution System is regarded as safety net for the rural poor.

Distribution of essential commodities on family cards has been in vogue in Tamil Nadu since 1964. Through Public Distribution System namely wheat, rice, sugar, imported edible oils, kerosene and soft-coke. During the year 1978, the Government took a policy decision to open a village shop in every revenue village to distribute essential commodities.

While the Central Government procures (or) allocates and supplies these commodities to the states, who in turn are responsible for the allocation and distribution within the respective state. "The Government has initiated, in consultation with the State Governments and union Territories administrations, steps to revamp the public distribution system to improve its reach on the basis of an area approach and to eliminate leakages and malpractices that have crept into this system"

The Public Distribution System can be regarded as a permanent feature of India's food policy since the early fifties. The public distribution system has come to occupy a significant part of Indian life, especially with the weaker and vulnerable sections of the Indian rural society. The major outlets for the distribution of controlled commodities are the fair price shops.

2. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is undertaken mainly to highlight the circulation of ration cards and functioning of fair price shops under   public distribution system in Madurai District    

3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To study the circulation of ration cards  under PDS in Madurai district
2. To study the functioning of fair price shops under PDS in Madurai District.

4. METHODOLOGY

This study is based on empherical survey method.  It is a blend of both descriptive and analytical methods of study. The secondary data have been collected from the co-operative and civil supply departments of annual report of unpublished records.

5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS:

 
The present study has been analysed the management of public distribution system in Madurai districts of Tamilnadu. It has been mainly focused in the secondary data recording the functioning of fair price shops and circulation of ration cards under PDS were collected from the department of co-operative and civil supply in Madurai Districts. The collection of secondary data has been analysed are as follows.

5.1 Year-wise Number of Fair Price Shops

Table 1 has reveals that the classification of year-wise fair price shops in Madurai district.                                      

TABLE 1

Year-wise Number of Fair Price Shops in Madurai District                                                            
(in Nos.)

Sl.No.

Block/Taluk

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

1.

Madurai Center

75

75

75

76

76

78

78

78

77

2.

Madurai East

80

80

80

80

80

80

87

87

76

3.

Madurai West

100

100

100

100

100

101

114

114

110

4.

Madurai North

84

84

84

84

85

85

86

87

87

5.

MTS (North Taluks)

110

112

112

112

112

113

113

117

136

6.

Melur

85

87

87

87

88

88

89

92

92

7.

Vadipatti

83

83

83

83

83

84

84

89

89

8.

Usilampatti

78

79

79

80

80

80

102

110

110

9.

Thirumangalam

100

100

100

100

100

100

102

110

110

10.

Peraiyur

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

82

82

 

Total

870

875

875

877

879

884

930

966

969


Source: District Supplies Office, Madurai, 2009-10.

It is inferred from Table 1 revealed that among 870 fair price shops were functioning in Madurai district during the year 2001-2002.  Fair price shops were functioning through public distribution system under co-operatives and TNCSC stores are increases between 2001-2002 to 2009-10.  This may be due to the fact that increasing the number of family cards in Madurai district.

5.2 Taluk-wise Classification of Fair Price Shops

In Madurai district there are taluks Table 2 reveals the taluk-wise classification of fair price shops in Madurai district.

TABLE 2

Taluk-wise Classification of Fair Price Shops in Madurai District

    Sl.No.

    Taluk

No.of Fair Price Shops

    Percentage to Total

    1.

    Madurai Centre

    77

    7.95

    2.

    Madurai East

    76

    7.94

    3.

    Madurai West

    110

    11.35

    4.

    Madurai North

    87

    8.98

    5.

    MTS (North Taluks)

    136

    14.04

    6.

    Melur

    92

    9.49

    7.

    Vadipatti

    89

    9.18

    8.

    Usilampatty

    110

    11.35

    9.

    Thirumangalam

    110

    11.35

    10.

    Peraiyur

    82

    8.46

 

    Total

    969

    100.00


Source: Unpublished records of Registrar of (PDS) Co-operative, Madurai.

Table 2 revealed that among the 969 fair price shops functioning in Madurai district 11.35 per cent each taluk of their fair price shops are in Madurai West, Usilampatty and Thirumangalam.  Low number of fair price shops functioning in Madurai east taluk amounted to 7.94 per cent.

5.3 Agency-wise Fair Price Shops  

The fair price shops functioning in Madurai district for the supply essential commodities are of two types.  Table 3 reveals the classification of fair price shops functioning under different agencies.

TABLE 3

Details of Fair Price Shops functioning under different Agencies

    Sl.No.

    Name of Agency

No.of Fair Price Shops

    Percentage to Total

    1.

    Co-operatives

    945

    97.52

    2.

    TNCSC

    24

    2.48

 

    Total

    969

    100.00


Source: Unpublished Records of Registrar of (PDS) Co-operatives, Madurai.

Table 3 has revealed that 97.52 per cent of fair price shops in Madurai district are under the control of co-operative stores.  Fair price shops functioning under the control of Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation (TNCSC) are amounted to 2.48 per cent.  Majority of the fair price shops in Dindigul district are under the control of co-operative stores.

5.4   Co-operative fair price shops according to Type of Operation

Fair price shops in Madurai district are managed by two types of employees namely full-time and part-time employees.  Fair price shops functioning by full-time employees are working 6 days in a week with Friday as a weekly holiday.  Part-time shops are operated in the villages where there are less than 500 cards.

TABLE 4

Classification of Shops according to Type of Operation

    Sl.No.

    Type of shop

No.of Fair Price Shops

    Percentage to Total

    1.

    Full-time shop

    852

    90.16

    2.

    Part-time shop

    93

    9.84

 

    Total

    945

    100.00


Source: Unpublished Records of Registrar of (PDS) Co-operatives, Madurai.

It is inferred from the Table 4 that among the 852 fair price shops functioning under the control of co-operatives 90.16 per cent of the shops are functioning on full-time basis and 9.84 per cent of the shops are functioning on part-time basis.

5.5 Area-wise Classification of Fair Price Shops under Co-operatives

Table 5 reveals the classification of fair price shops on the basis of areas of co-operatives.

TABLE 5

Area-wise Classification of Fair Price Shops under

    Sl.No.

    Basis of shop

No. of Fair Price Shops

    Percentage to Total

    1.

    Rural shops

    833

    88.15

    2.

    Urban shops

    112

    11.85

 

    Total

    945

    100.00


Source: Unpublished Records of Registrar of (PDS) Co-operatives, Madurai.

Table 5 revealed that the fair prices shops are functioning under co-operatives are in rural areas and urban area amounted to 88.15 per cent and 11.85 per cent respectively.

5.6 Classification of Ration Cards under PDS 

Table 6 has reveals that year-wise classification of ration cards under public distribution system in Madurai district.

TABLE 6

Year-wise Classification of Ration Cards under public distribution system in Madurai District
                                                                                                                                                                  
(in Nos.)

Sl.No.

Block/Taluk

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

1.

Madurai Center

49115

49336

49700

49960

57415

58400

58620

58960

61150

2.

Madurai East

45500

45880

45980

46500

56020

56240

57000

57000

57000

3.

Madurai West

89500

89640

89647

90817

94996

95480

96800

97320

99338

4.

Madurai North

66800

67104

67112

67626

74115

75100

75370

75520

79850

5.

MTS (North Taluks)

54010

54880

54985

55340

60800

60800

62110

62550

64212

6.

Melur

36116

36227

37110

39360

45899

46246

47003

47330

50936

7.

Vadipatti

66640

66709

67003

68014

74815

75412

75800

75800

78022

8.

Usilampatti

39968

40110

40216

40247

47002

47216

48122

48122

50419

9.

Thirumangalam

32880

33207

34125

34985

41112

41980

42100

42100

42980

10.

Peraiyur

37400

37550

38320

38410

47010

47300

47800

47800

48019

 

Total

517929

520643

524198

531259

599184

604174

610725

610725

631920


Source: District Supplies Office, Madurai, 2009-10.

From the Table 6 it is clear that the circulation of ration cards had been increased during the study period in Madurai district.  In 2001-02 was circulation of ration cards are amounted to 5, 17, 929 and it was increased to 6, 31,920 ration cards in the year 2009-10.  The result shows increasing trend in the supply of ration cards under public distribution system in Madurai district.

5.7 Details of Taluk-wise Ration Cards 

Table 7 reveals the classification of ration cards based on taluk - wise in Madurai district.

TABLE 7

Taluk-wise Ration Cards in Madurai District

    Sl.No.

    Taluks

No.of Ration Cards

    Percentage to Total

    1.

    Madurai Centre

    61150

    9.68

    2.

    Madurai East

    57000

    9.02

    3.

    Madurai West

    99338

    15.72

    4.

    Madurai North

    79850

    12.64

    5.

    MTS (North Taluks)

    64212

    10.16

    6.

    Melur

    50936

    8.05

    7.

    Vadipatty

    78022

    12.35

    8.

    Usilampatty

    50419

    7.98

    9.

    Thirumangalam

    42980

    6.80

    10.

    Peraiyur

    48019

    7.60

 

    Total

    631920

    100.00


Source: Unpublished records of Registrar of (PDS) Co-operatives, Madurai.

Table 7 has revealed that among the 631920 ration cards in Madurai district, Madurai west taluk tops the list with 15.72 per cent of the ration cards followed by Madurai North Taluk amounted to 12.64 per cent.  Thirumangalam Taluk has lowest number of cards in this district.

5.8 Details of Option Cards for Specific Commodities 

Table 8 has reveals the classification of ration cards according to the type of commodities opted.

TABLE 8

Classification of Ration Cards on the basis of Commodities Opted

Sl.No.

    Option cards

No. of Cards

    Percentage to Total

    1.

    Rice Cards (Rice with all goods)

    4,26,378

    67.47

    2.

    Kerosene cards

    1,24,692

    19.73

    3.

    Sugar cards

    80,850

    12.80

 

    Total

    6,31,920

    100.00


Source: Unpublished Records of Registrar of (PDS) Co-operatives, Madurai.

It is inferred from the Table 8 revealed that among the ration cardholders in Madurai district 67.47 per cent have opted for rice and those who have opted for kerosene have amounted to 19.73 per cent.

6. CONCLUSION

The present study analyzing the circulation and functioning of public distribution system in Madurai district of Tamil Nadu, Fair price shops are functioning amounted to distribution system in Madurai district amounted to 969 shops and each taluk has obtain 11.35 per cent of shops in Madurai west, Usilampatty and Thirumangalam taluks. Fair price shops are functioning under the control of co-operative department are amounted to 97.52 per cent and 90.16 per cent of the shops are functioning under full-time basis.  The shops are functioning under rural areas are amounted to 18.15 per cent.  The tops the list with 15.72 per cent of ration cards are circulated Madurai west taluk in this district.  The circulation of ration cards in Madurai district amounted to 631920 cards in the year 2009-10.  Rice with all essential commodities are buying the option cards are amounted to 426378 cards in Madurai District.

REFERENCES:

1.Singh V.B.(1980) "Evolution of Fair Price Shops", Oxford and IBA Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1973,p.167.

2. Jos Mooji,(2001) "Food Policy and the Indian state: the Public Distribution System in South India", Oxford University press, Calcutta, p.67-69.

3. Grover, R.K., (2003) " Public Distribution system; a Socio Economic Analysis", Classical Publishing Company, New Delhi, p.49.

4. Jena, Dr. A.C., (2002) "Public Distribution System and Involvement of Panchayat Raj Institutions," Kurukshetra , p.72.

4. Leading Education Campaign monthly in the country.(1992), The Tamil Nadu Journal of Co-operation,  Vol.84. No.2, p.25-27.

6.Thiruvasagam, Dr.G., (1990) "Public Distribution System, an Evaluation", The Co-operator, Vol.XXIII, p.15-18.
 


Dr.N.Subburaj
Principal
Padmavani Arts & Science College for Women
Salem-636011, Tamil Nadu
 

Source: E-mail September 9, 2012

          

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