Methods of Management Development: A Modern Approach


Mr. T.Saravanan
Assistant Professor
AR School of Business


Just as you can't expect a recent college graduate to succeed by experience alone, you can't expect up-and-coming talent to immediately grasp the ropes. Management Development plays a vital role in preparing a company for the next generation of leadership.

While some employees may seem a shoe-in for management positions, their knowledge and skill sets must be carefully evaluated. Perhaps they have great expertise in marketing but lack the financial savvy to maintain the marketing budget. Perhaps they are the greatest sales person in the world, but they don't have a clue how to motivate and lead an entire sales force. Success in at least one area of management doesn't necessarily equate success as a manager. Without training and guidance, they are sure to fail. A good Management Development plan, however, will bring to light any deficiencies and provide concrete opportunities for the good to get better.


Any organizational development expert will tell you that the effectiveness of management holds a direct correlation to the organization's overall success. By taking the time to invest in good Management Development, the economic benefit to the organization can be increased. The better trained the staff is, the less likelihood there will be costly errors or oversights, efficiencies will be improved, sales and marketing campaigns will run smoother, and overall company positioning will be improved. It all boils down to training and leadership at all levels.


Simply it is the art of getting work done through people, the way you would have done it yourself and with the available resources. Optimum utilization of resources is the first rule of management. Making the best out of whatever is available with you is a management art. It involves four major functions viz planning, organizing, staffing and controlling / coordinating.


As the word suggests, it is progress i.e. a growth or success over a period of time.  For a business, it can be expansion and diversification and for an individual may be a promotion or a salary hike.


If we put the two together, it simple means one's improved abilities to manage businesses or self. It is a conscious effort, planned in nature, which makes a person capable and increases their capacity to manage an organization, its people and also their own self. Best explained, it is the process by which managers discover as well as improve their abilities and skills, which would not only be advantageous to them but also to the organizations for which they work.

The most common traits required in a manger are good communication skills, leadership qualities, problem identification and solving, and most importantly persuading and encouraging others to give in their best.  These traits if not present in a manager or are dormant, can be identified and developed over a period of time through proper management development programs.


* It is acknowledged as one of the determinants for organizational success having a direct impact on its economical benefits.

* For organizations, making available such techniques to their managers helps the company to hold on to their prized employees.

* It also helps the organization to serve their customers better.

* The productivity of the managers as well as employees increases.

* Leadership and risk taking ability of the manager is enhanced, making the overall working environment of an organization, challenging.

* It helps in exploring skills of a manager and the employees which were till now not active or unresponsive.

Management Development is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations. In organizational development (OD), the effectiveness of management is recognized as one of the determinants of organizational success. Therefore, investment in management development can have a direct economic benefit to the organization. Managers are exposed to learning opportunities whilst doing their jobs, if this informal learning is used as a formal process then it is regarded as management development.



Simply put, this is a sort of test carried out in order to check a person's mental stability and whether or not he has any psychological disorder.  This can also help in assessing a person's mental strength and ultimately also guides us whether or not the individual needs to undergo a psychological training program.


Mentorship is a personal developmental relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. However, true mentoring is more than just answering occasional questions or providing ad hoc help. It is about an ongoing relationship of learning, dialog, and challenge.

The person in receipt of mentorship may be referred to as a protégé (male), a protégée (female), and an apprentice or, in recent years, a mentee.

"Mentoring" is a process that always involves communication and is relationship based, but its precise definition is elusive. One definition of the many that have been proposed, is

Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, and the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development; mentoring entails informal communication, usually face-to-face and during a sustained period of time, between a person who is perceived to have greater relevant knowledge, wisdom, or experience (the mentor) and a person who is perceived to have less (the protégé)".


Coaching, when referring to getting coached by a professional coach, is a teaching, training or development process in which an individual gets support while learning to achieve a specific personal or professional result or goal. The individual receiving coaching may be referred to as the client or coachee, or they may be in an intern or apprenticeship relationship with the person coaching them. Occasionally the term coaching may be applied to an informal relationship between one individual who has greater experience and expertise than another and offers advice and guidance as the other goes through a learning process. This form of coaching is similar to mentoring.


Job rotation is a management technique that assigns trainees to various jobs and departments over a period of a few years. Surveys show that an increasing number of companies are using job rotation to train employees. There are both positive and negative effects involved with job rotation that need to be taken into consideration when a company makes the decision to use this technique.

Job rotation is also a control to detect errors and frauds. It reduces the risk of collusion between individuals. Organizations dealing with sensitive information or system (e.g. bank) where there is an opportunity for personal gain can benefit by job rotation. Job rotation also helps in business continuity as multiple people are equally equipped to perform a job function. If an employee is not available other can handle his/her position with similar efficiency


Professional development refers to skills and knowledge attained for both personal development and career advancement. Professional development encompasses all types of facilitated learning opportunities, ranging from college degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage. There are a variety of approaches to professional development, including consultation, coaching, communities of practice, lesson study, mentoring, reflective supervision and technical assistance


Business Workflow Analysis (BWA), aka Business management systems p2p, is a management tool that streamlines, automates and improves the efficiency of business procedures. As part of the move towards the paperless office, BWA is a method allowing businesses to better comprehend their current needs and to establish future goals. The long-term objectives of BWA are those of reducing transaction costs and managing performance.

BWA generally necessitates the participation of:

* Employees whose everyday role includes the processing, handling and sharing of documents.
* Experts with a vision of how the work should be done.
* IT staff with an understanding about how the vision could be translated into a realistic solution.
* A facilitator whose role it is to manage the project and keep to specified limits in time and expenditure.
* BWA in actions such as routing documents to different locations, securing approvals, scheduling and generating reports.


Upward feedback is the process by which superiors or management are rated by employees or subordinates, while downward feedback is the flow of information from superiors or management to employees or subordinates.


Executive education (Exec. Ed) refers to academic programs at graduate-level business schools worldwide for executives, business leaders and functional managers. These programs are generally non-credit and non-degree-granting, but sometimes lead to certificates


Programs providing information related to rules/regulations, interpersonal skills, as well as the acquisition of skills enhancing supervisory effectiveness. Examples: Hiring Procedures for Classified Positions; Position Description Development.


Managers are exposed to learning opportunities whilst doing their jobs, if this informal learning is used as a formal process then it is regarded as management development. The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. And yet, as author, workplace relationship authority, and executive coach, Dr. John Hoover points out, "Tempting as it is, nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid."  Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent, knowledge, and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or customer.



Mr. T.Saravanan
Assistant Professor
AR School of Business

Source: E-mail December 29, 2012


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