Project simply is getting the job which
is a set of inter-related activities done within specified time and cost while maintaining desired quality. Projects may be simple or complex in nature involving varying requirements of resources with respect to Technology,
Manpower, Finance, etc.
As such, everyone of us from production employees to financial analysts, from bankers to physicians, from engineers to administrators and others are managing projects of diversified nature and
content. We all work on various tasks with deadlines of time, cost and quality. Thus, managing any project to successful completion is always a challenge.
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROJECT :
* A Start and a Finish
* A time frame for Completion
* Involvement of several People
* A limited set of Resources
* Sequencing of Activities
OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT :
The objectives of project management of all projects irrespective of their size and complexity are basically :
* Time control
* Cost control
* Quality control (leading to desired performance)
The problems of
setting objectives may arise due to responsibility without authority and focusing too narrowly.
PRE–PROJECT ACTIVITIES :
* Product identification based on supply – demand gap
* Market survey to decide the capacity subject to resource constraints
* Technology selection
* Feasibility report
* Detail project report
* Arranging resources as per requirement
PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT ;
* Technology (Know how, Basic and Detail Engineering)
* Resources available
APPROACH OF PROJECT ACTIVITIES :
– Availability of different resources must be assessed before committing the time of completion. Project planning begins with the end result and work–out backwards. Good planning leads to less problems during implementation and faster progress.
Goal – Assess the desired end result of the project covering scope. The effective project goal has
5 characteristics : SMART
S – specific
M – measurable
A – agreed upon
R – realistic
T – time framed
ROLE OF EFFECTIVE PROJECT MANAGER :
* Develop clear project goal –SMART
* Communicate to all team members
* Monitor the goal constantly to take corrective action in case of any deviation from planned schedules
KEY PERSONNEL OF THE PROJECT TEAM :
Depending upon the type and size of the project the manpower planning is undertaken
* Project Manager
* Engineering Manager
* Procurement Coordinator
* Scheduling & Monitoring Engineer
* Engineering Group Leaders
* Resident Construction Manager duly assisted by engineers from all disciplines
DIFFERENT BROAD PHASES OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION :
* Know–how and basic engineering
* Detail engineering
* Procurement including inspection and expediting
* Shipping, clearance and transportation to site
* Receipt, handling, storage and issue of materials at site
* Construction including civil works and erection
* Pre-commissioning and trial runs
* Handing over
TYPES OF PROJECT ORGANIZATION:
* Functional – Project Manager coordinating only
* Task force – Project Manager complete project control
* Matrix – Project Manager : What & When ; Department Heads : How
* Hybrid matrix – Project Manager & Department Heads : Joint responsibility
There are a
large number of Design, Engineering & Consultancy organizations of different sizes specializing in different areas both Public and Private sectors.
Few of them are mentioned below :
* Engineers India Ltd.
* Projects & Development India ltd.
* Flour Daniel
TOOLS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT :
Master control network :
* Breakdown of different activities – design, engineering,
procurement, construction & erection, pre-commissioning, commissioning and handing over.
* Assign weight age of different activities.
* Flow of information between different departments.
* Release of drawing schedule and placement of orders.
* Planned and actual progress to identify slippage, if any.
* Exception reports and corrective action to arrest slippage, if any.