Rural Tourism in Globalizing World:
A Scope for Rural Development


Paper presented in
37th World Congress of the International Institute of sociology, (5-9 July 2005)
Stockholm,Sweden.
 


Authors:

Dr. Manoj Kumar Trivedi
Asst. Professor
Deptt. of Busness Management, Maharana Pratap Engg. College
Kanpur
E-mail:
manojktrivedi@rediffmail.com
&
Dr. Pankaj Kant Dixit
Asst. Professor
Dayanand Academy of Management Studies
Kanpur
 


INTRODUCTION --:

1991 was a very important year with respect to the development of India. India opened the floodgate of development by liberalizing the economy through the strategic process of liberalization privatization globalization (LPG).

The process was challenging. Foreign companies and investors came into India and on the other hand Indian businessman and investors also got opportunity to explore the possibilities of expanding their business on international line. 

India is a fastest developing economy of the world but still if we look at India, a major past or population of India is still living in villages in majority, with the growing rate of population and increasing demand of basic amenities. It has become pertinent now to give a serious thought or how to meet the growing demands of people and provide them quality of life.

In village the only mode of livelihood is based on agriculture and agriculture is very much dependent on the mercy of God if destiny of the crop is fine no problem but in the adverse time village can not generate their livelihood because lack in infrastructural facilities, poor technology and insufficient irrigation system and lack of money so there is a huge transactions from village to city for their livelihood because village is not much develop that they can fulfill the requirement of them.

RURAL ECONOMY IN A FLUX --:

They wanted to go certain cities in India like Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Banglore, Hyderabad etc. Certainly these cities have opportunity and also they are providing jobs to good number of people but these cities to have a threshold limit and they can support the livelihood of the people up to a certain level.  Hence now there is a great need and high time for us to think positively with rationality and come up with certain great decision and course of action to stop this great flux of people to more from there home town and search for good jobs so that they can support their family and security with achieving them a quality of life in their village or near by their village by rural development..

Research indicates a great question on the role secondary and tertiary factors means industries and sources, which can play their role at time of failure or absence of primary sectors i.e. agriculture or they did not support to develop other sources.

There is no requirement to discuss about primary and secondary factors hence directly come to this tertiary sector with special emphasis to tourism, it can play in development of village by providing an excellent blueprint of development, carrier and quality of life.

TOURISM --A PATH FOR GROWTH:

Tourism being a very developing prospective area in India has also got impetus and tourism in India has started growing with considerable pace. India is being fabulous country offering almost all the tourism products available under a single roof (destination). From marvelous beaches to exotic hills, from hostalic past to challenging future and oldest civilization to the youngest paradigm shift (change in culture attitude, approach and behavior), from still existing barter system to highly developed system market every thing in available in India and this industry of tourism is really offering challenging and very bright future to the People of India.

Before discussing the role of different component there is need to discuss about the scope and types of tourism product, which are generally available or can be made available to these rural parts.

In rural parts generally following kinds of products are available viz. historical, heritage, natural based, medication based, religious based, cultural based and man made. Which have got a great potential with respect development of tourism, also if certain constraint are removed this could be developed to their fullest excellent and there are certain great examples and certainly few countries where will showing public and political will these things have been made possible. All of them religious and historical type of rural tourism products are give much space for rural development.

A PROCESS - THE WAY TO DEVELOP:

To develop the concept the rural tourism the need to be developed those rural areas and development should be tune of sustainable development, which propagates that the development should be in such a way that meets the need the present generations without compromising with the ability of future generation.

Hence we must ensure at time of development of these rural areas that economic, social, sociological sustainability & etc. can be maintained.

There are number of potential tourism destination in India which are yet to be explored but have not been explored as yet and have got great potential hence before making a blueprints and discussing the prons and cons we must first of all find out the region which are contributing to a great extent for pathetic development of these areas despite of the fact that these areas have got great potential and scope and development the regions are very strong and are matter of great concern the reasons are as follows:

1. Poor Infrastructure
2. Lack of public and political will
3. Lack of social awareness
4. Off let realization of the fact that tourism can also play a great role in the development.
5. Political games
6. Illiteracy
7. Belief that only agriculture can help people
8. Through it has been more than 50 years of Independence still it can be find that it is a new country.
9. Ecological disturbance
10. Improper tourism marketing
11. Lack of planning
13. Instability of the Government.
14. Less allocation for tourism infrastructure and technological backwardness
15. Attitude of people due to unawareness
16. Absence of people participation
17. Absence of supporting industry, like food, transportation and cloths etc.

Apart from these there are various regions to support the statement that need a lot to do for the developments of these areas.

Way back the father of nation respectable  Mr. M. Gandhi ji dreamt about Swaraj means self-role and his concept of Swaraj propagated that each and every individual of India must be in a position where he or she can earn for his or her livelihood and if we reach this situation. We shall be developed nations and his dream of Swaraj was transformed into reality by developing the concept of "PANCHAYATI RAJ".  In Panchayati Raj System, which is a three tier, system very clearly says that the each and every village must be capable of earning its livelihood and if each village would be capable of doing so the development will be automatically come.

It can be made possible on this way when these villages or rural areas become self dependent and realize that the tourism industry can very well support their and their future generation livelihood and must come up with a plan to attract maximum number of domestic and international traveler by realizing the strengths of their project and promoting the same in a decent manner.

To help and encourage these people, government and also the private companies must come and provide with sufficient funds and amenities which could facilitate the development of the place and this is only possible there shall be a strong political will and efficient tourism development plan also a good and trusty worthy private and public partnership on the basis of BOT, i.e. build, operate and transfer.

As we know that tourism can be developed on these levels known as national level, regional level, and local level as we have a local tourism policy also which could be devised by the Nagar Nigams or development authorities of particular areas.  They should come up with the plans and must put in efforts to attract government funding and private investment at the local levels.

The plan or blueprint must cover the following concepts and must answer the following questions:

1. How tourism can be beneficial for us?
2. What kinds and types of tourism products do we have?
3. What kind of potential and scope is available?
4. What is the profile of potential customer w.r.t. tourism industry?
5. How it could be helpful in employment generation?
6. What kind of development plan has to be initiative?
7. How should help in social upliftment?
8. How to create awareness?
9. How to ensure safety of tourist?
10. How to protect the environment?
11. Measure of waste management
12.  How travel information would be provided?
13. How to attract the investment?
14. What class of people visits the area?
15. How to segregate the different class of product and quality basis?
16. How to provide basic amenities like food, accommodation, electrification and  water?
17. What role would be the different components play?
18. What are the duties and responsibilities of the citizens of that area?
19. What would be the USP( Unique Selling Preposition) ?
20. How to protect the social interest by tackling the problems of carrying capacity?

There are scores of more questions, which need to be considered, and answered at the time of making blue print or strategic planning of a particular area.

Apart from that, it is very much conspicuous that all the above problems cannot be tackled or solved at ones hence there has to be a long term plan comprising several short term plan and certain strategies to be created in order to achieve all the plan in a smooth and confident manner.

CASE STUDY---BITHOOR:

The stated concept can be defended by cite certain examples and researcher feel sine being in the vicinity of Bithoor a very important place with respect the religious and historical tourism can be taken as a model for rural development.

Around 16 km. from the industrial Hub of Uttar Pradesh Kanpur, Bithoor situated on the banes of river Ganga has a great respect in the hearts of Hindus and Historian because of its great and pride past.

Bithoor is also known as 'Brahmvarot' and it is believed that the creator of this entire universe is ' God Brahama' and the centre of universe as per the Hindu Mythology is said to be at Bithoor.  Secondly the sons of Lord Rama, Lav and Kush were born in Bithoor only during the period when Lord Rama exonerated Sita, Hence it becomes very important and lakhs of people take a holy dip on river Ganga on the various occasions and festivals.

Third, this place has also got great importance as great freedom fighters like Nana Saheb, Tatya Tope and Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi started their struggle for freedom in the year 1857 from this place only.  During his stay in Bithoor several forts and places were built which are still a source of inspiration and attraction to the Historian and research oriented people.

It is a very small place connected through roads and rail from Kanpur having small population, intact culture and salubrious environment. But 10-15 years ago there are many problems like roads problems, electric problems, transportation problems, problem of employment, problem of markets, problem of communication etc. Now there is well connected roads, also connected by rail, mobile are available all most every home, transportation is going fast, good markets are there and people here in Bithoor earn their livelihood through tourism, sacred ceremonies and many people come every day to Kanpur from earning their livelihood.  Rationally speaking Bithoor is a great place for spiritual, religious, educational and excursionists.  Being statellite town of Kanpur, which is very well connected with almost all the parts of nation by all modes of transportation, transportation is not a major issue to reach Bithoor.

But still we need to take certain steps and can develop tourism to this place by making it an activity centre. Several steps have been taken in this direction but still there are certain issues, which can be tackled and must be considered like:

1. Most of the sites here in Bithoor have not to be adopted by ASI, which is responsible for preservation, conservation and maintenance of sites of historic importance.

2. An action plan must be devised to make river Ganga free from pollution, which is rather an Achille's heel right now.

3. Serial awareness has to be created and local people must be involved in development and there shall be participation (Direct) of these people.

4. Budget hotel i.e., three star properties must be built for domestic tourists as well as international tourists who are visiting Bithoor.

Most of the measures I suggested are going to definitely increase the tourist flux in area and are going to give a great boom to the industry which would definitely help in retaining the man power and local people to that area only which would definitely stop the transition of people from these places to metro or developing cities, which in turn will also reduce the pressure from measure town.

Also several states like Kerala, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh and Countries like Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Nepal have adopted and realized the importance of rural development through rural tourism.

At last in this globalized economy only they are going to survive who will offer the best product and great offers, hence here arise a need where one must realize that only major towns or well connected place can't give you all you want but we need to have contribution of those small and rural areas also which are potentially challenging but lack somewhere in amenities.

It is a time now to take the first step in the direction of rural development then only when we can become a developed nation by the year 2020(Vision of our Hon able president of India).
 


Dr. Manoj Kumar Trivedi
Asst. Professor
Deptt. of Busness Management, Maharana Pratap Engg. College
Kanpur
E-mail:
manojktrivedi@rediffmail.com
&
Dr. Pankaj Kant Dixit
Asst. Professor
Dayanand Academy of Management Studies
Kanpur
 

Source: E-mail September 3, 2005

  

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