Advantages of Vipassana Meditation on Psychosomatic, Professional and Managerial development of Business Graduates
A qualitative Research


By

Prof. Dileep Kumar M.
Director
Sinhgad Business School
Sinhgad Technical and Educational Society
Kusgaon, Lonavla-410 401
E-mail:
dilmail@rediffmail.com / dileep@scmld.org
 


Introduction

Education is a continuous and creative process.  The aim of education is to realize these innate qualities, potentials and talents of individuals and to develop these capacities latent in human nature to get personal - social satisfaction and enrichment and progress of society. True education helps individuals to understand their innate qualities and enable him to become self-motivating agent of social change, serving the best interests of the society. Education enables each one to understand their expected role in developing a new social order that suitable enough to position himself and that of his fellow beings. It is the fundamental premises that the young generation should take up the responsibility of their own development and that of their nation by participating in the adventure of exploring and understanding their own creativity and intelligence through the process of education. But the great tragedy is the system of imparting formal education, under the four walls of a class room setting, through literature, lecture and library, putting no effort to make individual human being realize their creativity and potential, is now more concerned with immediate need satisfaction rather than materializing the long term cherished dreams of a nation. In the systematic process of building a new world order their role becomes limited and far away from strategic thinking, creative decision-making and advancement of a civilization.

In this context Krishnamurti Foundation, (1992) rightly indicates that  "At its best, the modern educational system imparts some professional knowledge and skills, but it lacks any cultivation of heart. The result is only to make the students conceited materialists. Consequently, at an age when children should be dreaming of beauty, greatness and perfection, they now dream about sensory titillation and wealth, and spend time worrying about how to earn money. 

Major problem we can identify here is the sharp deviation from the principle and aims of education in its perception and implementation in the modern social system. Although economic considerations are recognized as necessary to individual existence the objective of earning money through any means and accumulating wealth using any strategies, serves only individuals own short-term goal than long term one. Development of human resource through education should concentrate more on constructive value based holistic education than formal classroom education.

Dhar P.L. (2003) 'Education should be concerned with the totality of life and not with immediate responses to immediate challenges. Broadly speaking, four different but inter-related aspects of human life can generally be recognized: viz., the physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. Holistic education should cultivate all these aspects in full measure'.

Every individual is born with some innate qualities. In the deepest level of their minds exists an infinite reservoir of creativity and intelligence. Educational process should incorporate holistic education to equip children with spiritual, moral, material and scientific knowledge to develop our young generation competent enough to shoulder forward our nation with fidelity and accuracy.  To make it materialize "there exists in India and many other countries today, a scientific method of control and purification of mind which, if properly integrated with the educational process, has the potential of becoming a universally acceptable technique for nourishing the emotional and spiritual dimensions of human personality. This technique, an ancient science of mind and matter, is called Vipassana meditation'.

Vipassana is an ancient meditation technique rediscovered by Gotama the Buddha, about 2500 years ago. It is currently being taught in India and several other countries under the guidance of Shri S.N. Goenka, the principal teacher of Vipassana. It promotes conscious lifestyle changes, enhances concentration of mind and facilitates deeper psychological introspection to bring about lasting behavioral changes.

Vipassana is a Pali word meaning "insight". It is a system of self-transformation by self-observation; the object is to eventually reach a state of inner and outer calmness and balance of mind (Thray Sithu Sayagyi U Ba Khin, 1983).

How far this holistic education process helps Business Graduate students to develop their Psychosomatic, Professional and Managerial attitude and aptitude is the aim of this research.

Literature Review

OBJECTIVES OF VIPASSANA

  • To purify the mind.
  • Brings about the total transformation of the human personality.

Vipassana meditation can be described as a technique of purifying the mind of its baser instincts so that one begins to manifest the truly human qualities of universal goodwill, kindness, sympathy, tolerance, humility, equanimity, etc., and simultaneously gains an insight into the true nature and purpose of human existence. This is achieved in a very scientific manner through a systematic cultivation of Right Mindfulness coupled with non-reactivity; that is to say, development of the habit of paying penetrating attention to whatever is happening in our total organism-the body with its five senses and the mind which operates in and through it-without any admixture of subjective judgments or reactions. The quality, which purifies the mind at the deepest level, is the mental factor of objectivity, or equanimity, which develops from the constant, thorough understanding of the impermanence of all components of the mind-body phenomenon. (VRI, 1991)

The process of purification

During the meditation period, moments come when there is no new input of any complex-sankhara. The mind is just aware of sensations, unattached and full of equanimity. When this happens, layers after layers of accumulated deep conditioning, which are the cause of suffering, are eradicated. The mind becomes cleaner and purer, unburdened of defilements. Awareness gets established and the analytical faculty of the mind becomes sharper. There is no longer any sloth: there is energy. As a result, distinct awareness, discriminatory understanding of the law of nature, perseverance rapture, tranquility, concentration and equanimity develop in the mind. These factors of enlightenment lead to liberation, release from all suffering, here and now.

THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF VIPASSANA MEDITATION:

1. It is a universal technique, which can be practiced by anyone belonging to any country, caste or creed. 2. It strikes at the roots of our defilements in the unconscious mind and breaks the barrier between the conscious and unconscious layers of the mind.

3. There is no place for imagination in this technique, no verbalization of any mantra or visualization of any god or goddess, or any other object. The practice starts from experience of the apparent truth of body and mind and proceeds towards realization of the subtle and absolute Truth.

4. It is a highly individualistic and experiential method of meditation. Man must walk on the Path himself. No one else can make the effort for him or liberate him from the impurities of the mind. Hence there is no "gurudom" in this technique.

5. One reaps the benefits of this technique here and now, as one progressively becomes a better individual. (Usha Modak (2003)

STEPS OF VIPASSANA

To begin with, one has to take a vow of observing certain rules of moral conduct (sila). These are: abstention from killing any sentient being, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and taking any intoxicant. This first step itself is likely to bring about positive changes in a prisoner's life style.

The second component of this training is called Anapana, i.e., awareness of respiration. This involves continuous "observation" of the natural flow of incoming and outgoing breath. Gradually the mind gets concentrated on this natural activity and the person can exercise greater control over his mind. It promotes awareness of the present moment, equanimity and tranquility of mind, since the act of breathing is free from any craving or aversion.

The third step called development of 'panna' or wisdom-involves purification of mind through enhanced awareness. The individual engages himself in choice less and effortless observation of body sensations and tries to develop an attitude of non-judgment and non-reaction. This practice has a corrective influence on psychic disturbances. Whatever arises in the mind, be it anger, fear, insecurity, passion or sadness, is associated with certain internal body sensations. Observing these sensations in a detached/impersonal manner helps the individual handle these emotions. (VRI, 2003)

THE ABHIDHAMMA MODEL OF MIND

This model of mental activity is an "object relation" theory in the broadest sense: its basic dynamic is the ongoing relationship of mental states to sensory objects. "Sense objects" include precepts in the five main sensory modalities, plus thought or cognitive activity, which in this system is seen as a "sixth sense". "Mental states" are in continuous change and flux: in this analysis, the rate of change of the smallest unit of mental states-a mind moment which is a moment of awareness-is incredibly fast, described as arising at the rate of millions in the time of a flash of lightning.

Each successive mental state is composed of a set of properties, or mental factors, which gives it its distinctive characteristics: there are 52 basic perceptual, cognitive and affective categories of these properties (Narada Thera, 1968). The basic dichotomy in this analysis of mental factors is that between pure, wholesome or healthy and impure, unwholesome or unhealthy mental properties. Just as in systematic desensitisation, where tension is supplanted by its physiologic opposite relaxation (Wolpe J., 1957), healthy mental states are antagonistic to unhealthy ones, inhibiting them. Vipassana Meditation aims to eradicate these unhealthy properties from the psychological economy. The operational definition of mental health is their complete absence, as in the case of the arahat or saint (Goleman D., 1977).

EFFECT OF VIPASSANA

Venerable Nyanaponika Thera (1962) indicates  "the systematic practice of Anapana for a few days, the concentration increases, and a natural calming and equalizing of the breath takes place. As the breath is very intimately related to the mind, this leads simultaneously to a tranquilizing of the mind-in fact, of the entire life-rhythm.

The practice of Vipassana consists of "feeling" the sensations throughout the body without any reaction or evaluation whatsoever, thus developing equanimity at a very deep level. This is of course more easily said than done, because our subconscious mind, which is constantly "feeling" the body sensations, has the stubborn, recalcitrant habit of reacting to these sensations in a particular manner. It habitually reacts to pleasant sensations with craving and to unpleasant sensations with aversion, thus strengthening the mind's conditioned tendency to run after sensory pleasure and to run away from pain. (VRI, 2003).

Vipassana meditation trains the concentrated attention to follow the mechanics of mental processing in a detached fashion. This perspective of an observer allows the controlled release of mental contents like craving and aversion, past and future in a seemingly endless stream of memories, wishes, thoughts, conversations, scenes, desires, dreads, lusts and thousands upon thousands of emotionally driven pictures of every kind-which rise to the surface of the mind and pass away without provoking a reaction, while simultaneously anchoring one in concrete, contemporary reality (Fleischman P.R., 1986). Since the mediator is at the same time deeply relaxed, the whole contents of his mind can be seen as composing a "Desensitization hierarchy"; in this sense, Vipassana meditation may be natural global self-desensitization (Goleman D.,1977).The mind is deconditioned with meditation altering the process of conditioning per se, so that it is no longer a prime determinant of future acts (Goleman D.,1977); a refinement of awareness occurs and one responds consciously to life situations thereby becoming free from limitations which were forged by mere reactions to them. One's life becomes characterized by increased awareness, reality-orientation, non-delusion, self-control and peace (Fleischman P.R., 1986). Such a person attains a state of inner and outer calmness and is able to make quick decisions, correct and sound judgment and concerted effort-mental capabilities, which definitely attribute to success in contemporary life.

Dhar P.L. (2003) indicates that "The practice of Vipassana consists of "feeling" the sensations throughout the body without any reaction or evaluation whatsoever, thus developing equanimity at a very deep level. This is of course more easily said than done, because our subconscious mind, which is constantly "feeling" the body sensations, has the stubborn, recalcitrant habit of reacting to these sensations in a particular manner. It habitually reacts to pleasant sensations with craving and to unpleasant sensations with aversion, thus strengthening the mind's conditioned tendency to run after sensory pleasure and to run away from pain".

"The technique of Vipassana is a simple, practical way to achieve real peace of mind and to lead a happy, useful life. Vipassana means "to see things as they really are"; it is a logical process of mental purification through self-observation. "  (VRI, 2003)

"The technique of Vipassana is a path leading to freedom from all suffering; it eradicates the craving, aversion and ignorance which are responsible for all our miseries. Those who practice it remove, little by little, the root causes of their suffering and steadily emerge from the darkness of former tensions to lead happy, healthy, productive lives."   (VRI, 2003)

"Vipassana enables us to experience peace and harmony: it purifies the mind, freeing it from suffering and the deep-seated causes of suffering. The practice leads step-by-step to the highest spiritual goal of full liberation from all mental defilements". (VRI, 2003)

Usha Modak (2003) One student reported that during his stormy adolescent years he had acute differences of opinion with his parents. He left his parental home in great anger, never to see them again. He had not seen them for nearly ten years in spite of their several attempts to contact him. When he came for a Vipassana course, his ego began to dissolve and he began to perceive his own shortcomings. He felt extremely miserable, but was able to consider his parents' point of view. He was able to see the situation from different angles, and not only through his coloured glasses. He decided to write to his parents and tell them of his whereabouts, return home and talk it over with them'.

Dr. J. N. Nichani (2003) indicates that 'as one gets more and more established in the practice of meditation, there are fewer mental problems, and even psychosomatic disorders like hypertension, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome, asthma and eczema get ameliorated. Vipassana meditation, therefore, leads to better health and a happy, blissful mind. There is less mental tension and confusion, and with such a clear and calm mind, one is able to deal easily with one's problems, thus living a merry and joyful life'.

Usha Modak (2003) indicates that 'apart from the purification of the mind, which is the primary goal of the technique, the mediator also experiences gains at the physical and psychological level. Many common ailments such as hypertension, headaches, ulcers, acidity, etc., are very often psychosomatic. These are automatically cured as a by-product of the cleansing process of Vipassana'.

Usha Modak (2003) further indicates that 'many students who practice Vipassana regularly, keep reporting that their concentration, memory and ability to grasp the material they read has improved tremendously. One student who had given up his college studies midway and was on tranquillizers is now free of pills. He went back to his studies and has now completed them'.

VIPASSANA AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 

Shah Jayantilal (2003) indicated "The Vipassana meditation technique improves the lives of executives and business managers by transforming their attitudes. Prejudice is replaced by compassion; jealousy changes into joy at the success of others; greed and arrogance are replaced by generosity and humility, and so on. This transformation of attitude results in stress reduction, and mental equanimity and balance. It is a creative force capable of inducing a dynamic work approach in subordinate staff. The positive change is brought about by a change in the attitude and actions of the executive-to polite and compassionate behaviour, gentle speech, and a mind full of love and friendliness. This positive change in consciousness is the aim of genuine meditation practice, and it forms a new and advanced basis for business and industrial management

Shah Jayantilal (2003) indicate further that Business management is presently judged by profits or "money-making" ability. Managers are evaluated by their ability to make more money by increasing product turnover, developing new technologies with better pay-offs, or decreasing costs through new inventions. In return, they want higher salaries and more requisites. Although there is nothing inherently wrong with generating profits and an increase in incomes, the real aim of an economic venture is to create a wealth, which combines money with health and happiness. Vipassana makes a significant contribution towards improving the mental health and happiness of individuals-vital components of wealth.

Shah Jayantilal (2003) indicate further that "One of the parameters in HRD process is the development of mutual respect, which naturally improves interpersonal relations. Meditation will also help to achieve this, enabling us to overcome the hostility towards fellow human beings- colleagues, subordinates, superiors, government officers and others. This hostility manifests as anger, arrogance, jealousy, vengeance, selfishness, greed, prejudice and ill will".

Shah Jayantilal (2003) indicates that the practice of 'Right Livelihood'(Samm±-±jČva) is an important aspect of Vipassana meditation. It can become the foundation for business management practice, upon which can be based traditional management techniques of using statistical data such as of cash-flow projections, return on capital, GNP, the turnover of profits, and so on. These parameters are useful if they are based on the concept of Right Livelihood.

The current literature on Vipassana Meditation Process indicates the impact of this process on human behavior and attitude. Now a day's Vipassana Meditation Process has been included in many business management institutions. This indicates that many educational institutions are in the way towards the holistic education which prepares individual performance excellence. This particular qualitative research tried to understand the importance of Vipassana Meditation in physical, professional, managerial and personal growth of students of business management education.

METHODOLOGY

The present study is aimed at understanding the effectiveness of Vipassana Meditation on business management students in their attitude and behaviour modification. A multidimensional analysis of attitudinal and behavioral variables in relation to Vipassana meditation on students is the primary focus of this study.

PROBLEM FORMULATION.

The present day educational system is more concentrating on classroom formal education rather than extending holistic educational opportunity to the students.  This kind of educational process makes the individual more towards unstable development than ensuring sustainable development. Educational system has the major responsibility to ensure psychosocial, physical and spiritual development of the individual and the society.  A man without moral and intellectual stability will lead our nation towards   war conflicts and social disorganization. As the students of present generation be the leaders of the coming era, it is necessary to extend holistic educational curriculum to improve their self-realization and purification of mind.  Many Business Management students and professional are engaged in Holistic Education Programs (Vipassana Meditation) to improve their attitude, perception, aptitude and personal goals that help in more self development and professional development. Hence, this particular research tries to understand the effectiveness of Vipassana Meditation on student's professional psychological and physical development.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.

    'Effectiveness of Vipassana Meditation on Psychosocial, Professional and Physical development of management students'

OBJECTIVES

    1. To understand the important understandings from Vipassana Meditation.
    2. To understand the attitudinal and behavioral changes of students after Vipassana Meditation Process.
    3. To understand the Physical, Psychological, Professional and Managerial advantages of Vipassana Meditation Process.

UNIVERSE

The universe selected for this particular research includes the students studying in of five business schools in Pune city, Maharashtra. Students of Symbiosis, Indira School of Management, Indian Institute of Modern Management, Sadhana Centre for Management and Leadership Development and Sinhgad Business School were considered for the research. The population consists of both genders having equal proportion. Since socio demographic variations were not taken into account for analysis, various attributes like age, gender, hobbies, marital status were not considered in this research.

SAMPLING FRAME

The study considered 133 Business Management students of Symbiosis, Indira School of Management, Indian Institute of Modern Management, Sadhana Centre for Management and Leadership Development and Sinhgad Business Schools, who had undergone Vipassana meditation past in their academic career in Business Management Course, out of 200 population. 19-24 Business Graduate Students who had successfully completed the 10 days Vipassana Meditation Course were considered for the data collection in each institute. The study followed random sampling method for arriving at a representative size of the population. Only male students were considered in this research.

ITEM ANALYSIS, TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION AND TOOL ADMINISTRATION

As the study more concentrated at individual level qualitative aspects, a schedule was prepared to collect the qualitative information from the Business Graduate Students. The tools consist of items related to professional, physical, psychological advantages students feel after attending Vipassana Meditation process. A pilot study conducted to standardize the schedule with 25 students from all over five campuses and relevant items were incorporated and irrelevant questions were deleted from the schedule. The students were individually approached by the investigator with a schedule and they were briefed about the purpose and significance of the study. It took about one hour to complete the schedule filling up process, as the items are more qualitative and in-depth in nature.

ANALYSIS

The data generated through 133 Schedule were considered for data processing. All the qualitative information was converted into quantitative form by developing appropriate variables viz, physical, psychological, managerial advantages etc. The score of each item was appropriately coded and entered into a master chart manually. Each item of the data was thoroughly checked before being entered in to the master chart to verify its accuracy. The data were later on stored into the floppy disc of computer. The data was processed in the SPSS package. The analysis was done based on the statistical tools in the SPSS. The analysis is based on responses than the respondents.

SCOPE

    1. The outcome of the study will help the upcoming and present Business Management Institutions to understand the effectiveness of Vipassana Meditation in their educational process.
    2. The outcome of the study will be an interesting peace of information to the academicians, research scholars and students to understand the importance of holistic education.
    3. It will be a valuable document to practitioners, physicians, management consultants, entrepreneurs and CEO's to understand the role of Vipassana meditation in better physical, mental and spiritual development of individuals.

Limitation

1. The study is based on limited percentage of population.
2. Time limitation
3. The study limited to few number of institutions
4. No socio demographic variations done.
5. Analysis limited to percentages.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

The analysis and interpretation the data based on qualitative variables as follows;

Table No: 1

Physical Advantages of Vipassana

Sl. No.

Physical Advantage of Vipassana

Students

N

%

1

Understand ones own hidden strength and potential.

27

20.3

2

Reduced Anxiety about food (One meal is enough in one day)

2

1.5

3

Body becomes more flexible.

17

12.8

4

Physical level resistance increased

2

1.5

5

Aware of healthy diet

3

2.3

6

Efficiency of digestive system increased.

3

2.3

7

Get rid of too much addiction of tea having habit

2

1.5

8

Increased energy level

3

2.3

9

Feel healthy and fresh

15

11.3

10

Reduced body weight

4

3.0

11

Better breathing

2

1.5

12

Early wake up and early bed habit attained

2

1.5

13

Increased concentration

8

6.0

14

Ability to withstand pain

15

11.3

15

No back pain

1

.8

16

Leg pain subsided

1

.8

 

Total

133

100.0


The study clearly indicates that majority business management graduates get physical advantages of Vipassana Meditation process, in one way or other. Major benefits includes understanding of hidden potentials (20.3%), ability to withstand pain (15%), flexibility of physique, (12.8%), positive feeling (11.3), increased concentration (6%) etc. Students obtained different advantages by undergoing this awareness process.

Table No: 2

Psychological Advantage of Vipassana

 Sl.   No.

                 Psychological Advantage of Vipassana 

Students

N

%

1

Get peace and stability of mind, strong will power, become calm, quite, relaxed, understand strength and weaknesses, become composed, patience, compassionate, determined, feeling equanimity.

48

36.2

4

Better positive thinking, objective out look, intellectually refined, Higher level of happiness

14

10.6

5

Control over, tension, agitation, anger, frustration reactions, hyper activeness.

30

22.6

9

Better decision making

2

1.5

11

Can concentrate more on the class,

32

24.1

12

Free from the habits of sleeping inside the class room

2

1.5

13

Just as before, No benefit,

4

3.0

14

Could take responsibility of many unjustifiable past events

1

.8

 

Total

133

100.0


The study indicates that majority business management student get psychological benefits out of the Vipassana Meditation Process. Among the Psychological benefits 36.2% of students reported that they obtained peace and stability of mind, strong will power, become calm, quite, and relaxed. They could be able to understand the strength and weaknesses, and become more composed, compassionate, determined, developed and developed the feeling equanimity. Their ability to concentrate day to day classes increased (24.1%) and gained better control over anger, agitation, frustration, reaction formation  and hyper activeness (22.6%). Students obtained different psychological advantages by undergoing awareness process. A very few students reported (3%) no change in their behaviour.

Table No: 3

Professional Advantage of Vipassana

Sl. No.

        Professional Advantage of Vipassana

Students

N

%

1

Developed balanced mind,

29

21.8

2

Control over Tension angry frustration, agitation anxiety, impatience, Reduce stress

56

42.2

4

More empathetic, organized, confidant, orderly and disciplined

18

13.5

5

Objective perception

11

8.3

6

Build good relationship with peers, relatives, and colleague

7

5.3

7

Handle conflict situation

5

3.8

8

Make better decision making

13

9.8

9

Enhance my productivity

1

.8

10

No benefit, Not convinced. Only a spiritual process.

3

2.3

11

Better concentration

14

10.5

 

Total

133

100.0


The study indicates that the Vipassana Meditation process enhanced their professional skills and approaches. Majority students reported that (42.2%) the awareness process helped them to control over their tensions, anxiety and impatience and reduce their anxiety to perceive things professionally than personally. While a considerable proportion of students indicate that (21.8%) the self awareness process helped them to develop a balance of mind and they became more empathetic, organized, confident and disciplined (13.5%).  The awareness process developed objective perception (8.3%) helped students to learn from within (3.8%). It also facilitates to better interpersonal relationships among students (10.5%). A very few percentage of students (2.3%) reported no benefit out of Vipassana Meditation Process.

Table No: 4

Important Understanding from Vipassana

Sl. No

Important Understanding from Vipassana

Students

N

%

1

Importance of introspection

9

6.8

2

Calmness, adaptability, patience, tolerance, forgiveness

5

3.8

3

Perseverance, confidence Posed, vigilant, silence,

5

3.8

4

Diligence persistent, goodness

25

18.8

5

Determination, observation

3

2.3

6

Understand importance of Self belief, Self discipline

12

9.0

7

Relaxation of mind and healthy living

7

5.3

8

Understand value of Equanimity, law of Impermanence,

20

15.0

9

Momentary life, social harmony, Continuous learning, Stay in present.

4

3.1

10

Don't tell lie, Don't steal any thing

2

1.5

11

Don't engage in sexual misconduct, Don't be selfish

1

.8

12

Don't hurt  or disturb others, Don't crib

2

1.5

13

Importance of Balance of mind, Mental peace

2

1.5

14

Clear focus, Look at life positively, Be objective,

4

3.0

15

Understand importance of Time management

4

3.0

16

Other understanding: Use of non-verbal communication, No comments.

5

3.8

18

Control of tension, agitation, anger, frustration, reaction, stress.

23

17.3

 

                                                    Total

133

100.0


The study indicates that Vipassana Meditation process helped the students to get many understandings. It gave awareness to them to be persistent and diligent in life (18.8%). The process helped them to control over stress and behavioral reactions (17.3%). The students understood the value of equanimity, the law of impermanence (15%), importance of introspection (6.8%), importance of self discipline and self belief (9%). In addition to that they developed the attitude to be calm and composed patience, tolerance, forgiveness (3.8%) clear focus, positive outlook, objective in life (3%) time management (3%) etc. The over all benefits are indicated in the table above.

Table No: 5

Managerial aspect students learned compared to teaching/ training at the institute

Sl. No

Managerial aspect students learned compared to teaching/ training at the institute

Students

  N

%

1

Humbleness, Self discipline, Patience and tolerance,

23

17.3

2

Calm and Composed Love and affection, truthfulness,

12

9.0

3

Concentration, Clarity on thinking and perception

6

4.5

4

Commitment, dedication, Orderliness Organization,

28

21.1

5

Time management and stress management

17

12.8

6

Meticulous behaviour, Peaceful way to efficiency

2

1.5

7

Better coordination and delegation of authority

12

9.0

8

Resource utilization, Maintaining equanimity

4

3.0

9

Opportunity for Introspection, more thinking

2

1.5

10

Learning through experience, Service without expectation

14

10.5

11

Understand others behaviour

2

1.5

12

Importance of silence and listening

2

1.5

13

Theoretical understanding in institute and practical understanding of Vipassana.

1

.8

14

No managerial aspect learned

1

.8

15

No response

7

5.3

 

Total

133

100.0


The study indicates that compared to teaching and training the students learned many qualities by undergoing Vipassana Meditation. It is reported that (21.1%) they learned the importance of commitment, dedication, orderliness, organization of staff.  While a considerable proportion of students reported that (17.3%) have acquired the learning of humbleness, self discipline patience and tolerance. The process helped the students to understand the importance of time management and stress management and better coordination (12.8%) service without expectation (10.5%), and the nature of learning through experience (9%). A few students shown their reluctant to respond (5.3%). Other details are incorporated in the above table.

Table No: 6

Managerial aspect students internalized to practice in Professional Life

Sl No

Managerial aspect students internalized to practice in professional life

Students

N

%

1

Humbleness Adaptability, truthful, calm and composed

8

6.0

2

Co-operation, Be open to ideas, Team work

8

6.0

3

Love and compassion, Committed and dedicated

14

10.5

4

Tolerance, Dropping ego get detached, Listen patiently

2

1.5

5

Silence self discipline Balanced mind Self belief,

34

25.6

6

Clear thinking and equanimity.

9

6.8

7

Co-ordination delegation Impartial decision-making,

8

6.0

8

Ordinate and focused, Resource utilization

4

3.0

9

Event management and logistics

1

.8

10

Follow order, synchronization, Punctuality

1

.8

11

Proper planning and implementation,

9

6.8

12

Be practical structured, objective and in the present

4

3.0

13

Time management

14

10.5

14

Control tension, agitation, anger, frustration, stress

5

3.8

15

To serve my country, serve others,

1

.8

16

Perform before you preach, impermanency

3

2.3

17

No comments at all.

4

3.0

18

Others

4

3.0

 

Total

133

100.0


The table indicates the aspects students internalized to practice in professional life. Majority students reported that they internalized the importance of silence, self discipline balanced mind and self belief that to be practiced in professional life (25.6%). They understood the importance of time management (10.5%) and became more compassionate, committed and dedicated in life. A considerable percentage of population reported that they learned importance of planning and implementation (6.8%), learned the importance of cooperation, openness, team work (6%), became more humble, adaptable, truthful, calm, and composed (6%). All other benefits are reported in as minor percentages though the importance changes the students observed within themselves.

FINDINGS

The below details indicates the interpretation the study arrived from the analysis of the  data made.

PHYSICAL ADVANTAGE OF VIPASSANA

  • Opportunity to understand ones own strength
  • Stretch the body more
  • Feel healthy and fresh
  • Resistance to pain

PSYCHOLOGICAL ADVANTAGE OF VIPASSANA

  • Get peace and stability of mind, strong will power, become calm, quite, relaxed, Understand strength and weaknesses, Become composed, patience, compassionate, determined, Feeling equanimity
  • Can concentrate more on the class
  • Control over, tension, agitation, anger, frustration reactions, hyper activeness
  • Better Positive thinking, objective out look, intellectually refine, Higher level of happiness

PROFESSIONAL ADVANTAGE OF VIPASSANA

  • Control over Tension angry frustration, agitation anxiety, and impatience
  • Developed balanced mind
  • Better concentration
  • Make better decision making
  • Objective perception
  • More empathetic, organized, confident, orderly and disciplined

 IMPORTANT UNDERSTANDING FROM VIPASSANA

  • Diligence persistent, goodness
  • Tension, agitation, anger, frustration, reaction, stress
  • Understand value of Equanimity, law of Impermanence,
  • Understand importance of Self belief, Self discipline
  • Opportunity for introspection

MANAGERIAL ASPECT STUDENTS LEARNED COMPARED TO TEACHING/ TRAINING AT THE INSTITUTE

    • Commitment, dedication, Orderliness Organization
    • Humbleness, Self discipline, Patience and tolerance
    • Time management and stress management
    • Learning through experience, Service without expectation
    • Better coordination and delegation of authority
    • Calm and composed Love and affection, truthfulness

MANAGERIAL ASPECT STUDENTS INTERNALIZED TO PRACTICE

IN PROFESSIONAL LIFE

    • Silence self-discipline, balanced mind, Self-belief
    • Love and compassion, Committed and dedicated
    • Time management
    • Proper planning and implementation

                                                           Discussion

The present study indicates that the Vipassana Meditation Process helps the student in transforming the attitude of business management students.  Industry is a place where the professionals have to meet the deadlines and targets in the stipulated time frame. They are always busy to meet such deadlines. Awareness about the self helps the professionals to reduce their stress at work place by undertaking the operations with calm, composed, focused, mentally alert, intellectually stimulated and mature behavior. Vipassana Meditation Process helps to undergo this self awareness process  and helps the professional to face the challenges and opportunities by positive outlook and changed attitude and behavior. Shah Jayantilal (2003) indicated that "The Vipassana meditation technique improves the lives of executives and business managers by transforming their attitudes. Prejudice is replaced by compassion; jealousy changes into joy at the success of others; greed and arrogance are replaced by generosity and humility, and so on. This transformation of attitude results in stress reduction, and mental equanimity and balance. It is a creative force capable of inducing a dynamic work approach in subordinate staff. The positive change is brought about by a change in the attitude and actions of the executive-to polite and compassionate behavior, gentle speech, and a mind full of love and friendliness. This positive change in consciousness is the aim of genuine meditation practice, and it forms a new and advanced basis for business and industrial management". The students who get an opportunity to experience self awareness process in their college level, when their habit moulding process takes place; it inculcates new mind set and positive attitude towards work, which helps them to cope up with occupational stress with their own inner abilities and self awareness. Here the holistic education plays a bigger role which incorporates the spiritual, physical, professional and psychological teaching and training in their regular academic curriculum. Role of attitude transformation is the most important challenge the faculties have to do in the business management teaching and training. Industry expects students with 'work attitude'. When 'workability' blends with 'work attitude' among professionals, the result will be performance excellence and competency. Hence a holistic education that incorporates the Vipassana Meditation process helps institutions to inculcate better attitude among business graduate students that further contributes to surplus and profit to industry. This discussion is supported by her report that (Shah Jayantilal 2003) "Business management is presently judged by profits or "money-making" ability. Managers are evaluated by their ability to make more money by increasing product turnover, developing new technologies with better pay-offs, or decreasing costs through new inventions. In return, they want higher salaries and more requisites. Although there is nothing inherently wrong with generating profits and an increase in incomes, the real aim of an economic venture is to create a wealth, which combines money with health and happiness. Vipassana makes a significant contribution towards improving the mental health and happiness of individuals-vital components of wealth.

These findings are more beneficial to Human Resource Development. This department is handling majority inter personal problems in industry. This department is dealing personal problems like anger, arrogance, jealousy, vengeance, selfishness, greed, prejudice and ill will and many other hostility factors. The Vipassana Meditation helps to control over the emotions and be self controlled always. It leads to better inter personal relationship, communication, team work, group work, mutual respect and group cohesiveness. In this context Shah Jayantilal (2003) further indicate that "One of the parameters in HRD process is the development of mutual respect, which naturally improves interpersonal relations. Meditation will also help to achieve this, enabling us to overcome the hostility towards fellow human beings- colleagues, subordinates, superiors, government officers and others. This hostility manifests as anger, arrogance, jealousy, vengeance, selfishness, greed, prejudice and ill will".

Conclusion

The above findings clearly indicates that Vipassana Meditation Process has high importance to get orient the students with better physique, psycho-social state that helps them to become good professional with focused managerial aptitude. More awareness to be made on this subject to business schools so that institutions can bridge the gap between 'what industry wants and what institutions now providing'. It is the responsibility of the institutions to inculcate better attitude and behavior through holistic education process so that quality students can be supplies to industry.
 


Prof. Dileep Kumar M.
Director
Sinhgad Business School
Sinhgad Technical and Educational Society
Kusgaon, Lonavla-410 401
E-mail:
dilmail@rediffmail.com / dileep@scmld.org
 

Source: E-mail October 10, 2005

  

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