Impact of Downsizing on 'Retainers' Behaviour-
A Study with Specific Reference to
Longer and Shorter Years of Service Members


Prof. Dileep Kumar M.
E- mail:


A noted scholar recently assessed downsizing as "probably the most pervasive yet understudied phenomenon in the business world" (Cameron, 1994). As a part of liberalization and privatization policies, many of the Indian organisations are implementing downsizing policies to curb the financial outlay and improve the quality, to become competitive at the global market.  Organizations in every industry and sector face an environment of continuous and accelerating change. The organisational members vary in their perception regarding the implementation of the downsizing policy within their organisation. Research indicates that culture change becomes tougher as organizations become more established and successful. Some have of the opinion that organisational downsizing produce better result in performance and productivity. Some indicates downsizing as a threat to the human resources and existing organisational culture.


Kozlowsky, Chao, Smith & Hedlund (1993) defined downsizing as a deliberate organizational design to reduce the work force that is intended to improve organizational performance. Cameron, (1994:194) defines downsizing as a positive and purposive strategy: "a set of organizational activities undertaken on the part of management of an organization and designed to improve organizational efficiency, productivity, and/or competitiveness" Downsizing thus defined, falls into the category of management tools for achieving desired change, much like "rightsizing" and "reengineering".

Effect of Downsizing

Pro arguments

Many researchers are supported with the argument that the downsizing policies improve the organisational productivity and profit. The right sizing contributes to better decision-making and the control of human resource so that the cost of expenditure can be cut short effectively. It develops a value system of proactive work culture where the members in the organisation get opportunity for better participation and involvement in the decision making process. It develops an ownership mentality among members and they shoulder forward an organisation with more collaboration fidelity and accuracy.

Downsizing has been defined as an attempt to increase organizational effectiveness (Kozlowsky, et. al. 1993). Freeman& Cameron 1993; Tomasco 1990; indicate from their findings that the presumed benefits of downsizing include faster decision making, greater flexibility, improvements in quality and increased efficiency and productivity. Another survey profiled in Wall Street Journal found that of the 1005 downsized forms questioned only 46 persons had actually cut expenses, 32% had increased profits, 22% had increased productivity and 22% had reduced productivity.  Research has identified that only one-fourth of firms that downsized have achieve improvements in productivity, cash flow or shareholder return investment (Tomasko 1992),

Cameron et al (1991) conducted the most extensive single study of downsizing to date in terms of number of organizations involved, breadth of investigation, and time span. The authors conducted a four-year longitudinal study of 30 organizations in the automotive industry. Their viewpoint was that downsizing is a necessary and affirmative approach to becoming more competitive, and an appropriate response to the disproportionate growth in the white-collar work force over recent decades.

Human Resources Management report indicate that (2001)"This mandatory retirement system  (VRS) gives firms a slow but sure way to cut back employment levels through attrition, whereas the call for voluntary retirement is seen as a more proactive way to move ahead with the reorganization of a firm".

"In February 2001 Mazda, the auto manufacturer, announced "Early Retirement Special Program" packages. The packages targeted 1,800 employees engaged in duties not directly related to production who were aged 40 or older, and had been with the firm for 10 years or more. Of these, 350 packages were available to employees aged from 30 up to 40 with a minimum of five years' tenure. In the end 2,213 employees applied for the plan. The company has not revealed how it handled the excessive number of applications or the nature of the incentives it actually offered to those applying for early retirement".

"While the call for voluntary retirement is seen as an unaggressive way of reducing employment levels which can result in solutions acceptable both to the employee and to management, there is concern that firms and the government pay adequate attention to the career development of employees and to their smooth movement through the labor market after taking such retirement".

"In the communications industry, both NTT East and NTT West called for voluntary retirement. Both firms aimed their packages at employees aged 40 or older but younger than 57 who had been at the firm for 10 years or more. They expect a total of 6,500 applicants in fiscal 2000 and 2001. As incentives, they have proposed special retirement payments equivalent to 12 months' basic pay for those who retire in fiscal 2000, and nine months' basic payments for those who retire in fiscal 2001. NTT West announced that it already had 4,000 applicants from two rounds in fiscal 2000 which exceeded the 3,500 initially planned for the two fiscal years together".  (Human Resources Management Vol.40-No.5 May 1, 2001)

Two studies of change at major U.S. corporations - Xerox (Kearns and Nadler, 1992) and General Electric (GE) (Tichy and Sherman, 1994) deal explicitly with culture change. Tichy and Sherman refer to a revolution at GE; part of that revolution, under Jack Welch, was to eliminate almost 170,000 positions. One of the basic assumptions at GE: "The ultimate test of leadership is enhancing the long-term value of the organization. For leaders of a publicly held corporation, this means long-term shareholder value" (p.367). GE turned against the notion of lifetime employment in favor of a stated goal of providing employees with the best training and development opportunities, but only conditional employment. Xerox also resorted to massive layoffs. Like GE, this downsizing was framed within the larger picture of adopting a total quality management culture. Kearns believed that the number one key to success was shifting focus outward to the customer.

Counter arguments

While many others strongly disagree with those arguments and indicates that it has devastating effect on human morale, motivation, and productivity.  Many research reported that it develop stagnation, deterioration, low morale, low trust and productivity.  The downsizing has more effect on the psychological contract that exist in between management and workers within the organisation. This indicates that the downsizing have more devastating effect on the human resource of the organisation. The fear and anxiety of the retainers of the organisation is more, as there is more uncertainty and insecurity feeling among them. This is called as 'retainer's syndrome.'

Psychological contract and downsizing

The major issue for those at the receiving end of downsizing-the survivors and the victims concerns.  This term as point by Harrylevinson (1962) to describe peoples unconscious choice of an organization to respond to their psychological needs and support their psychological defenses in exchange for meeting the organization's unstated needs. Brockner, 1992; Sherman 1993 indicate that incase of downsizing, the organization breaks this implicit psychological contract between employer and employee-a contract that implies life time employment in return for hard work and loyalty.  As a result, the feeling of dependency that may have evolved into entitlement is transformed into a sense of betrayal.

Morale and productivity

According to a Director, the Wyatt Company Layoffs, and restructuring have a severe adverse impact" on the morale of the surveyors.  Indeed 58% of the surveyed companies reported that employee's morale was seriously affected (Bennet 1991). Cameron, Freeman, and Mishra, (1993) reported that four-year study of thirty firms in the automotive industry, which revealed that "very few of the organizations in the study implemented downsizing in a way that improved their effectiveness. Most deteriorated in terms of pre-downsizing levels of quality, productivity, effectiveness, and the 'dirty dozen', e.g., conflict, low morale, loss of trust, rigidity, scapegoating".

However research has identified that downsizing may have unintended negative consequences for individuals and organizations (Cameron 1994; Cascio 1993; Kozlowski et. al.  1993). In addition downsizing is not always effective the first time an organization attempts it.  Two-thirds of the companies that downsized had to do it again a year later (Pearlsteain, 1994). Henkoff 1990 reported that "according to a survey by a society for human resource management, more than 50% of the 1468 restructured firms surveyed reported that productivity either remain stagnant or deteriorated after downsizing stagnant or deteriorated after downsizing A study by an outplacement firm noted that 74% of the senior executives in downsized companies experienced problem with morale, trust and productivity."

Stress and Downsizing

Brockner (1988) shows clearly that organizational downsizing is a strong stress-inducing factor that has a profound influence on the work behaviours and attitudes of the remaining work force. These findings underline the importance of managing interpersonal relations to help employees deal with the stress caused by the increased level of uncertainty and ambiguity generated by the downsizing process (Gilmore & Hirshorn, 1984; Sutton 1987).  Job loss or the threat of job loss which makes for feelings of loss of mastery and control over one's and threatens one's internalized concept of self, seem to be a strong stressor.

Researches results have indicated that many organizations have enjoy an initial upsurge in productivity immediately after downsizing but then become depressed and lethargic (Appelbaum, Simpson & Shapiro, 1987; Custer, 1994).  One consulting firm reported that stop prices of firms that downsized during the 1980s actually lagged before the industry average in 1990s (Baumohl, 1993).

Organisational culture and Downsizing

Hickok (2002) argues that, ultimately, the most prominent effects of downsizing will be in relation to culture change, not in relation to saved costs or short-term productivity gains. He notes three observations in relation to the impact of downsizing on organizational culture. First, it clearly appears that power has shifted away from rank-and-file employees in the direction of top management/ownership. Accompanying this change is a shift in emphasis away from the well being of individuals in the direction of the pre-eminence and predominance of the organization as a whole. Second, it appears working relationships have changed away from being "familial" in the direction of being more competitive. Third, the employer-employee relationship has moved away from long-term

Fierman, (1994) indicates that "A truer and fuller understanding of the forces shaping and thrusting downsizing forward today comes from an appreciation of increased global competition; changing technologies, which in turn are profoundly impacting the nature of work; increasing availability of a contingent work force and shifting balance of power among organizational constituents away from rank and file employees and in the direction of shareholders and the chief executives who serve as their proxy. When we conceptualize downsizing within these broader frameworks, it becomes clear that we are speaking of downsizing both as a response to and as a catalyst of organizational culture change".

Kozlowski et. al., (1991) states that 'another reason that it is difficult to draw a specific link between downsizing and organizational culture is that there are many different variations and approaches to downsizing. A distinction has been made between proactive downsizing, which is planned in advance and usually integrated with a larger set of objectives, and reactive downsizing, which would be typified by cost-cutting as a last resort after a prolonged period of inattention to looming problems by management

Cost reduction and Downsizing

According to a Wyatt Company survey covering the period between 1985 and 1990, 89 percent of organizations, which engaged in downsizing, reported expense reduction as their primary goal, while only 42 percent actually reduced expenses.

Hamel and Prahalad, (1994) pointed out that downsizing for the sake of cost reduction alone has been castigated intellectually as short-sighted and neglectful of what resources will be needed to increase the revenue stream of the future".

Job involvement and downsizing

Leana & Flednan (1988, 1990), take a closer look at how employees differ in their reactions with respect to downsizing…financial distress and previous detachment to the job seem to have the greatest negative impact.  For the victims of downsizing losing the job often evokes reactions comparable to those experiences with someone close (Greenhalgh & Rosenblatt, 1984; Henkoff 1994). 

Feelings of desperation over job loss may even culminate in violence in self destruction, as illustrated by statistics that denote murder in the work place as the fastest growing form of homicides in the United States, with about 40% of these homicides followed by suicide (Thornburg, 1992).

Downsizing and Coping

Other researchers have explored possible defensive reactions aroused by the downsizing process. One among common reaction seem to be denial a coping mechanism common to both management and employees in the downsizing process.  It has been suggested that the higher the organizational level, the stronger the denial tends to be (Noer 1993). 

Researchers have also found various cognitive coping strategies leading to two different reactions to downsizing: people either resort to denial detachment-, thus distancing themselves psychologically from the perceived threat, or show signs of hyper sensitivity, closely monitoring for dangerous signs (Greenhalgh & Jick, 1989).  

Downsizing on "survivors"

A stream of research, both laboratory and field, has provided documentation of the harmful effects downsizing can have on "survivors"; these effects have been described in terms of lower morale (e.g., Armstrong-Stassen, 1993), high stress (e.g., Leana and Feldman, 1992), and a "syndrome" marked by anger, envy, and guilt (e.g., Noer, 1993). The perceived fairness of the downsizing is considered a key-mediating variable (e.g., Brockner, 1992), as is the effectiveness of the communication of information (e.g., Bridges, 1987).

Voluntary Retirement System

Edwina Bressette (2001) "Voluntary Early Retirement allows eligible employees to retire early. It does not matter whether they are facing involuntary separation, transfer to another commuting area, or immediate reduction in the rate of basic pay. Their retirements create vacancies that can be filled by employees who would otherwise be separated or downgraded".

Varma (2000), further indicate that" the VRS now gets 'implemented'; despite the fine tuning and improvements, in 50 to 60 percent of the cases the initial response is dull and sluggish and the formulators are the schemes spent nervous days waiting for the clouds to part and the son to shine again.  In a number of instances the response is so poor that the scheme is scrapped with the management threatening action as per law".

Cameron, (1994) indicates that "because of the downsizing mania of the last several years most employees at all levels are feeling very insecure about their jobs." Hemendra K. Varma (2000) stated that "there is a sharp drop in morale, for everybody knows that VRS is an admission of failure and helplessness; this takes its own toll on motivation".

Gopalakrishnan, C. V (2002) indicates that " an unexpected consequence of the VRS- 'the Golden Shake hand' – only led to the exit of the more competent employees for whose services there was demand in the private sector. The PSU's were then saddled with employees who could not gravitate to greener pastures".

Varma (2000) views that" what is the effect on VRS on people who remain?  In one word devastating".

Rationale of the study

The pro and contra argument cited in the review of literature clearly indicates that there are differences of opinion in the implementation and benefits of downsizing, within the organisation. Many researchers reported that the downsizing has severe consequence on the human resource of the organisation. It affects the psychological contract between workers and management. It leads to stress and strain among members in the organisation. Hence it is necessary to understand the attitude and feelings of the retainers towards the downsizing and the remaining life at work. This particular research tries to ascertain the attitude of the retainers on downsizing within the organisation.



The population selected for this particular study is 200 employees of  downsized public limited industry in Ernakulam district of Kerala.


The sampling population of this research includes 200 employees of one of the downsized public limited industry in the Ernakulam district of Kerala. The major departments of technical and administrative areas considered for the research study. The study covered a population of 200 employees from different service years. The shorter service years belong to 1-10 and longer service years belong to 11-20 years of service. The rationale behind the selection of this particular group is considering their level of services. They are in the middle years of service having high aspiration towards achievement and advancement in their work life. This research followed the systematic random sampling method representative population. The population belongs to an age group of 30-40. Only, male members were considered in this research. A five point Likert scale having 20 items instrument used in the research

Tool of data collection

A multi dimensional analysis of downsizing effect on organisational members is the primary focus of this research. 

The variables selected for the study are:

1. Feeling of Uncertainty
2. Feeling of Job insecurity
3. Feeling of Lack of relatedness
4. Feeling of lack of growth


    • To understand shorter years of service and longer years of service retainer's attitude towards downsizing policy.


    • There will be significant difference between shorter years of service and longer years of service members in their attitude towards downsizing.

Operational definitions

    • Downsizing: Downsizing is a deliberate organizational design to reduce the work force that is intended to improve organizational performance. Kozlowsky, Chao, Smith & Hedlund (1993)
    • Feeling of Uncertainty: The degree to which members in the organisation feel uncertain about the future of the organisation
    • Feeling of Job insecurity: The degree to which members in the organisation feel insecure about the security of job.
    • Feeling of Lack of relatedness: The degree to which members in the organisation feel lack of group cohesiveness at work.
    • Feeling of lack of growth: The degree to which members in the organisation feel lack of opportunity for achievements and advancement at work

Analysis and Results

Table: 1

Mean, SD and t-values of retainer's with respect to longer and shorter years of service

Sl No.



Shorter Service

Longer Service
















** indicates significance at 0.01 level

The table (no.1) indicates that the retainer's of short years of service have high mean score (77.95) in relation to downsizing policy, compared to retainer's of long years of service (63.37) in public sector, in this particular research.

Table: 2

Mean, SD and t- values of retainer's with respect to longer and shorter years of service different feelings


Shorter Service

Longer Service
























Lack of relatedness








Lack of growth
















The above table (no.2) indicates that the feeling of lack of growth and job insecurity have high mean score to retainers of shorter years service (37.57 and 22.57) in relation to the downsizing policy. While the retainers of longer years of service have high mean score in relation to related-needs and growth needs (30.83 and 28.77) in relation to the downsizing policy, in this particular research.

Major findings

1. There is significant difference in the short term and long term retainer's in their attitude towards downsizing policy.
2. The retainer's of short years of service have high concern towards the downsizing policy compared to .the retainer's of short years of service
3. The retainer's of short years of service have concern towards the lack of growth and job insecurity related to downsizing policy.
4. The retainers of long years of service have concern towards related needs and growth needs towards the downsizing policy


This section incorporates a short discussion, on the major two findings of the shorter years service group and longer years service group in the research finding. The finding is in tune with the hypothesis formulated in the research. There is significant difference between shorter years of service and longer years of service members in their attitude towards downsizing.

The finding clearly pointed out the differences in the needs of the shorter years of members and longer years of members in this research. The longer year members are very much anxious about the growth needs and security needs. While the longer year members gives much importance to the related needs and growth needs. The common factor we can observe here in this research is the attitude towards growth needs. The shorter year service members give more importance to their growth needs while the longer years service group give comparatively lesser importance. The new comers in the organisation have high aspiration towards their achievement and advancement in their life. The members of the shorter year service, the have high work importance to their career development. This is in correlation with the Herzberg's two-factor theory. Here the shorter year members have high concern towards the motivational needs like achievements, recognition and advancement in their life. The shorter year service members consider the downsizing policy as a threat to their advancement and achievement in their organisational life.

While the longer years members have high concern towards the related needs. Longer the service members have within the organisation higher the social relationship members have with co-workers. The implementation of the downsizing policy breaks away these bonds that they developed during their past years in the department and organisation and they have to work with different groups and members in the future.  The longer year members higher work importance related to the affiliation need is very clear in these findings. Thomas A Hickok (2002) rightly pointed out in this context that the most prominent effects of downsizing will be in relation to culture change that it appears working relationships have changed away from being "familial" in the direction of being more competitive. The work relationship and work behaviour will be based on the competition and meeting the targets. The impact of downsizing is more at the psychological level to the human resource of organisation. The move shatters the psychological contract that exists between the members and the management at work and work organisation. The finding indicates that the member's affiliation need is affected by the downsizing policy.

The second finding indicates that the members of the shorter years of service give much importance to the job security. This indicates that to satisfy their growth needs they should be able to continue in their job. In the wake of downsizing there are chances that the members will be down graded or transferred to the sister concerns. The transfers affect their family relationship and the exiting work relationship within the organisation. The concern towards better compensation packages in the wake of downswing also develops high concern among members.  The members have to work in tune with the expectation of the organisation in order to cope up with the market changes and high competition. The job profile off members also changes, since it is necessary to support the organisation when they face acute competition. The fear towards their job, job profile, working relationship and familial concerns develops deep anxiety and tension among members within the organisation. Brockner (1988) shows clearly that organizational downsizing is a strong stress-inducing factor that has a profound influence on the work behaviours and attitudes of the remaining work force. These findings underline the importance of managing interpersonal relations to help employees deal with the stress caused by the increased level of uncertainty and ambiguity generated by the downsizing process (Gilmore & Hirshorn, 1984; Sutton 1987).  Job loss or the threat of job loss which makes for feelings of loss of mastery and control over one's and threatens one's internalized concept of self, seem to be a strong stressor.

The longer year members also have high concern towards their career growth. The longer year service groups are at senior positions within the organisation. The senior positions area attached with high power, authority, autonomy and prestige. The prestige is more associated with the higher knowledge and skill they have at work. The probability to dilute the authority and power is very high in the wake of down sizing implementation. The members can expect changes in the position and power now they held within the organisation. This indicates that members of longer years of service give higher work importance to their existing privileges and prestige. The fear towards dilution of the roles and responsibilities and the probability for down gradation etc are other concerns in the downsizing implementation process. The senior members consider that their motivational needs like advancement and recognition are at stake in the downsizing implementation process. The high concern of the longer years, senior level people are then related to member's anxiety towards lack of opportunity for advancement, recognition, feeling of insecurity and relationship at work.


1. Feeling of fear, anxiety and tension affect the productivity
2. Feeling of lack of motivation affect the work performance
3. Feeling of high stress affect the physical condition of members
4. Feeling of lack of opportunities affect the work moral
5. Feeling of uncertainty develops deep insecurity feeling
6. Feeling of job insecurity develops low commitment and involvement at work
7. Feeling of lack of support shatter the psychological contract
8. Feeling of unimportance develop secondary importance to work
9. Feeling of fear develops high resistant behaviour
10. Feeling of low affiliation develop alienation and estrangement at work


To help members in downsizing implementation, more effort on the part of policy makers, practitioners, and organizational management envisaged. The author, there by making a few effort to suggest some effective measures, that can improve coping strategies of employees that lead to better adjustment within the organisation. They can be detailed as follows:

Ways to accept downsizing in the right spirit

1. Develop strategies to convince the retainers continuously that the decision regarding downsizing was right to great extent.
2. For every reward allocation convince the retainers that this opportunity you got because of downsizing.
3. Continuously remind the employees that they should be thankful to the top management/ organizers that they have not chose closure of undertaking considering employees life.
4. Develop effective plan to meet the needs of the retainer's family members also.
5. Conduct attitudinal survey to get the feed back of the retainers to improve the working condition.
6. Make the retainers inform that there is more opportunity for you get reward as the volume of employees downsized.
7. Engage outside institutions to make the retainers more enthusiastic, positive and alleviation of their stress.
8. Do reduce the situational shock celebrate the occasions of joy and festivals.
9. Through immediate reward develop an employee group to show others as they themselves as beneficiaries of change effort.
10. Develop a vision of future that draws retainers towards doing right things.
11. Practice empathetic leadership than autocratic bossy way of style of management during downsizing period.
12. Take confidence on union members to persuade low performing employees to opt VRS.
13. Make clear the work design by informing the workers new role and responsibilities and workload.
14. Making investment in the form of training and education to the retainers to take up challenges of new work schedule.
15. Management should well prepare to understand the psychological problems of the workers to respond in more empathetic way.
16. Reward system should be associated with cost cutting effort to be encouraged to develop new behaviour.
17. Encourage broader participation in diagnosis and discussion with the retainers to develop a new culture of sharing and empowering.
18. Reduce the number of employees who perform same kind of functions.
19. Merge different departments, which perform almost different functions.
20. Go for flat organization structure cutting across hierarchical levels.
21. Use self-managing teams to carry out functions independently with specific tasks.
22. Considering cost effectiveness prefer outsourcing
23. Lessen the differentiation at various managerial and operational levels.
24. Give adequate time to adjust with the new changes to the retainers.
25. Concentrate more on productive working populations.
26. Analyze the probability to offer part time jobs to those experienced downsized employees.


Organisational downsizing is common in the wake of globalisation, liberalisation and modernisation process across industries. Mangers have to perform more preventive role that curative role in the advent of downsizing or right sizing. The management should be more proactive than reactive in the approach. The above findings lights upon the concerns of the members towards downsizing. These finding are based on a short research and it doesn't incorporate the socio demographic and bio-socio variable for the analysis. Among which there is high importance to the biosocial variables like minor and major ailments. The researchers who are interested to do further research can establish the relationship between stress, ailments and downsizing policies. The author expects to draw attention from policy makers and men of eminence in the related fields in this area of concerns and resume further research.

References and Bibliography

1. Appelbaum, S. H., Simpsons, R.,  & Shapiro, B.T. (1987), 'The Tough Test of Downsizing', Organisational Dynamics, Vol. 16(2), P: 68-79.
2. Armstrong-Stassen, M. (1993). "Survivors' reactions to a workforce reduction: A comparison of blue-collar workers and their supervisors," Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 10 (4), pp. 334-343.
3. Baumohl, B.  (1993), ' When Downsizing Become Dumbsizing', Time, March 15, P: 55.Bennett, L. (1991), ' Management: Downsizing Does not Necessarily Bring an Upswing in Corporate Profitability' Wall Street Journal, June 6, P: B-1
4. Brockner J. (1988), The Effects of Work Layoffs on Survivors: Research Theory and Practice. In B.M. Staw and L.L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organisational Behaviour (Vol-10) Greenwich, C.T.: Jai Press, 1988,P: 213-255.
5. Brockner, J. (Winter, 1992). "Managing the effects of layoffs on others," California Management Review, P: 9-27.
6. Cameron, Freeman & Mishra (1993), 'Organisational Downsizing and Redesign. In G.P. Huber and W.H. Glick (Eds.) 'Organisational Change and Redesign, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
7. Cameron, K.S. (Summer 1994), 'Guest editor's note: "Investigating organizational downsizing--fundamental issues,' Human Resources Management 33(2), pp. 183-188.
8. Cascio. (1993), ' Downsizing What We Do Know? What We Have Learned? Academy of Management Executives, Vol. 7. No. 1. P: 222-240.
9. Edwina Bressette. (2001),  'Voluntary Early Retirement Authority', Online Document.
10. Freeman, S.J.& Cameron (1993), 'Organisational Downsizing: A convergence and reorientation frame work', Organisational Science, 4(1), P:10-18.
11. Gilmore, T. N.  & Hirschhorn, L. (1984), 'Managing Human Resource in a Declining Control', In Fombrun, N. Tichy, & M. A. De Vanna (Eds.)'Strategic Human Resource Management. New York: Wiley.
12. Gopalkrishnan, C.V (2002), ' VRS and disinvestments', News Analysis, Hindu Daily, Friday February 8.
13. Greenhalgh, L & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984), 'Job Insecurity: Towards Conceptual Clarity'. Academy of Management Review. Vol. 9(3). P: 438-448.
14. Hamel, G., and Prahalad, C.K. (1994). "Competing for the future," Harvard Business Review, P: 122-128.
15. Harrylevinson (1962), ' Men Management and Mental Health', Cambridge, MA: Harvard university Press.
16. Hemendra K. Varma (2000) Human Resources Management Vol.40-No.5 May 1, 2001
17. Henkoff. (1994), ' Getting Beyond Downsizing', Fortune, 129(1), 30-34.
18. Hickok, T. (1995). 'The impact of work force reductions on those who remain: A study of civilian workers at two Department of Defense bases'. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.
19. Human Resources Management Vol.40-No.5 May 1, (2001).
20. Kozlowski, S., Chao, G., Smith, E., and Hedlund, V. (1993), "Organizational Downsizing: Strategies, Interventions, and Research Implications," International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Vol. 8, pp. 263-332.
21. Leana, and Fledman. (1988), 'Individual Response to Job Loss, Perceptions Reactions and Coping Behaviours' Journal of Management, 14(3), P: 375-389
22. Leana, and Fledman. (1990), ' Individual Response to Job Loss: Empirical Findings From Two Field Studies, Human Relations, 43(11), P: 1155-1181.
23. Noer, D. (1993),. 'Healing the wounds: Overcoming the trauma of layoffs and revitalizing downsized organizations'. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
24. Pearlsteain, S. (1994), 'Corporate Cutbacks Yet to Payoffs', The Washington Posts, B6.
25. Thornburg, L. (1992), 'Practical Ways TO Cope with Suicide', Human Relations, Magazine. Vol. 37(5), P: 62-66.
26. Tichy, N. and Sherman, S. (1994). Control your destiny or someone else will. New York: HarperCollins.
27. Tomasko, R.M. (1990). Downsizing: Reshaping the corporation for the future. New York: AMACOM.

Prof. Dileep Kumar M.
E- mail:

Source: E-mail January 28, 2006


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