Employee Commitment:
Resultant Manifestation of Organisational Culture and Approaches


By

Prof. Dileep Kumar M.
Ex-Professor
Symbiosis (SCMHRD, SCDL), IIIT, SCMLD, SBS
Pune
 


Employee Commitment

Member identity or organisational commitment is a value laden behaviorally anchored cultural variable of organisational environment. It is an attitudinal or emotive dimension of work motivation, manifesting itself in member's behaviour. Scholars believe that members "committed" to the organization and feel "identify" with the organisation, as a function of their interaction and relationship with that organization and that of the manifestation of the attitude of management towards the labour force.  This belief firmly holds the view that member's identity to the organization, as result of a set of carefully designed policies that underlined within the cultural pattern of the organization. It works over time to build attachment behaviour among members. Members' identity with organisation is an indicator of their involvement and loyalty to the organisation.

Here, important question to be answered is: "What drives human beings to behave and condition themselves to attach with the organisation?"  It is widely assumed that the individual differences (dispositions) that contribute to high levels of organizational identity and commitment. Since, organisational culture varies in different organisational environment, it may have varied influence on the behaviour of members and have a role in creating a sense of commitment, loyalty, involvement and identity towards the organisation.

Studies Related to Organisational Commitment

The review of literature indicates that the culture of the organisation and the prevalent practices affect the employees commitment behaviour at work. The feeling of member's identity and the organisational commitment is related to the organisational culture factors. 

Singh and Das (1994), conducted a study on the impact of organizational culture on the level of commitment to work based on data collected from 200 male respondents from three organizations with similar production and process.  The study tends the researchers to believe that organizational culture does influence the level of commitment on work significantly.  That is the culture of the organizations plays a significant role in the area of motivation and commitment to work.  Better.  Organizational culture where ones, higher order needs are satisfy through autonomy achievement self actualization leads to higher level of commitment.  Conversely, the organizational culture with coercive authority—autocratic and benevolent autocratic system—affects the level of commitment negatively.  Responses to such organizational systems are characterized with inaction, apathy and alienation rather than with positive action—commitment and involvement. The study concluded by making an observational comment that designing a better organizational culture can raise the level of commitment to work considerably.

Organizational commitment has also been found to be positively and significantly related to many organizational characteristics, communication (Martin and O'Laughlin 1984, Curry et. al. (1993), Sharma, (1989); Sharma and Singh, (1991), group cohesion (Martin and O'Laughlin 1984; Singh, 1990) job security (Wanous 1980; Sharma 1989) training (Martin and O'Laughlin 1984; Mathiew, 1991; Sharma 1989), monitory benefits (Wanous 1980; Sharma, 1989; Sharma and Singh. 1991), recognition and appreciation (Sharma 1989; Sharma and Singh 1991), objectivity and rationality (Sharma 1989, Grievance handling (Sharma 1989).  Relations with supervisor and interpersonal trust (Cook and Wall, 1980; Fukami and Larson 1984), supportive participative style (Welsch and Lavan 1981; Sharma, (1989); Singh, (1990), Standardization (Singh 1990), decentralization, functional dependence and formulization (Morris and Steers, 1980), Welfare facilities Sharma (1989) and Welfare corporatism (Lincoln and Kalleberg).

Steers, (1977) indicates that Individuals enter the organisation with specific skills, desires, and goals and expect a work setting, where they can use their skills, satisfy their desires, and achieve their goals. To the extent the organisation is perceived as facilitating these ends, organizational commitment is likely to increase. On the other hand, if the organisation is perceived as failing to provide sufficient opportunities along these lines, organisational commitment is likely to diminish.

Steps to Improve the Commitment of the Employees at Work

To achieve a high performance culture that ensure member's commitment and contribution at work management should initiate with following behaviour-oriented steps. They are:

1. Establish clear work roles and performance standards
2. Communicate openly and honestly
3. Knowledge sharing should be demonstrated through the organization.
4. Continuously benchmark behavioral process and management with other organizations.
5. Create flexible work environment
6. Accommodate your employees life style and scheduling
7. To create more productive environment involve your employees.
8. Look ways to learn form other companies in human resource maintenance.
9. Respect individual disparity in all people.
10. Encourage honesty and integrity among members.
11. Maintain sense of pride and camaraderie's of employees of the department.
12. Encourage open communication and cohesiveness at all level of interaction.
13. Encourage teamwork and self managed team culture.
14. Facilitate decentralized decision making at unit level.
15. Do follow fair consistent and impartial behaviour towards subordinates.
16. Develop trust and confidence on the fair and free performance appraisal system.
17. Conduct regular feed back to understand the problems in the delegation, decision-making, motivation and satisfaction level of employees.
18. Facilitate the improvement opportunities at work performance.
19. Develop appropriate job description considering the employees skill and performance level.
20. Don't give any opportunity to employees, to think about job requirement capability mismatch.
21. Dedicated to problem solving process without having any pre-conceived notion.
22. Find time to listen and attend employee's minute problems at shop floor level.
23. Give accountability to your action, decisions and performance.
24. Always be an accessible superior.
25. Show appreciation for exceptional work.
26. Be as a student in the management field always improves your skill and knowledge for better performance.
27. Encourage spirit of innovation and risk taking
28. Share your knowledge and skill with your subordinates.
29. Be polite, ethical and professional in communication behaviour.
30. Give training to employees to improve their skill and knowledge at performance level
31. Share your ideas with your subordinates before go for final decision-making.
32. Always ensure that the operational deadlines are realistic before the subordinates.
33. Take step to recognize teamwork innovative ideas, and problem solving skills.
34. Keep your door open so that the employees don't have any feeling of avoidance and dissatisfaction.
35. Always find time to share information about the global changes with employees at all hierarchical levels.
36. Encourage business school students to take classes on global and local changes and its effect on business to the employees.
37. Collectively develop individual and group development plans.
38. Make employees understand the importance of business improvement for their own socio economic development.
39. Avoid haste decisions that affect employee's expectations on job security and job stability.
40. Make use of organizational journal to inform certain decisions, which develop motivation among individuals to work more for the organization.
41. Encourage employees to make healthy criticisms which contribute more to productivity and production..
42. Do make use of trust and confidence to as strategic partners to motivate employees.
43. Make your employee to identify key values and beliefs of the organization.
44. Encourage employees who have the potential to move organization to progress.
45. Try to understand each of your employee's values to best accommodate their desires.
46. Always promote a healthy, safe and comfortable working condition for satisfaction and better performance..
47. Do provide supportive, motivative and trusting work environment to members for efficient performance.
48. Always ensure growth and development of your subordinates.
49. Avoid discretionary treatment marginalization and victimization of members at work.
50. Maintain the accessibility, dependability and accountability of the grievance handling procedure.
51. Ensure general health and safety of your employees.
52. Conduct concurrent or periodical culture audit.
53. Make use of role models whom can motivate other employees.
54. Align rewards, appreciation and recognition to support appropriate behaviour.
55. Let the employees to have access to the top level and senior level managers to have cross-functional interaction.
56. Do conduct recruitment from within.
57. Offer gratifying rewards as subsidies in loans, spot bonus, referral bonus, professional enhancement, assistance programs etc.
58. Develop feeling of ownership and dignity on work performance
59. Don't be serious always. Crack fun at leisure time.
60. Encourage upward evaluation to make the system more efficient, transparent and reliable.
61. Keep profile of employees and celebrate birthdays, anniversaries.
62. Keep performance orientation always simple and open to members for verification and clarification.
63. Clearly communicate what kind of performance culture you are trying to create
64. Clearly define the link between performance and pay rules of the work and work procedures.

Conclusion

A work organization is a joint product of techno social system.  Its effectiveness depends on the joint operation of both social and technical system in the organizations value system. A culture, which extends better support to these two components, develops better motivation among employees to work for the organization. The work culture of the organization is actually the vehicle of motivation. Commitment thus a factor that works under the socio technical system moulds our attitude and behaviour towards better organizational environment. Organizations, which intended to bring or to maintain the motivational culture, have to concentrate more on employee's commitment behaviour.

References

1. Cook J. & Wall T.D (1980); Commitment and Personal Need Non-Fulfillment', Journal of Occupational Psychology, Vol.53, P: 29-52.

2. Curry, et. al.,(1993), On the Casual Ordering of Job Satisfaction and Organisational Commitment', Academy of Management Journal, 29, P: 847-858.

3. Fukami, C.V. & Larson E.W (1984), 'Commitment to Company and Union: Parallel Models', Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, P: 367-371

4. Lincoln and Kalleberg, (1989)
, 'Commitment, Quits, and Work Organisation in Japanese and U.S. Plants,' Industrial And Labour Relation Review", 50, P: 39-59.Louise.

5. Martin and O'Laughlin  (1984), 'Predictors of Organisational Commitment', The Study of Part-Time Army Reservists, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 25, P: 270-283.

6. Mathiew, 1988;

7. Mathieu, J. A. E. (1991), 'A cross Level Non Recursive Model of the Antecedents of Organisational Commitment and Satisfaction'. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 76, P: 607-618.

8. Mathieu, J. A. E. (1991), 'A cross Level Non Recursive Model of the Antecedents of Organisational Commitment and Satisfaction'. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, P: 607-618.

9. Morris and Steers, (1980), 'Influence on Organisational Commitment' Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 17 P: 31-35.

10. Sharma B.R & Singh, S. (1991), ' Determinants of Commitment', Management and labour Studies, 16, P: 63-75.

11. Sharma (1989), 'A Study of the Relationship of Organisational Climate with Organisational; Commitment and Psychological Well being', PhD Thesis, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla.

12. Singh P, & Das G S (1977) 'Organisational culture and its impact on remuneration', Decision. From, Sing, P. and Das, P.A Organisational Culture and its impact on commitment to work', Academy of Management Journal. Vol.  21. P511-524

13. Singh S. (1990),  'Executive Under Stress- Exploration in the Structure and Dynamic,' Classical Publishing Co., New Delhi.

14. Steers R.M (1977)
"Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizational Commitment" Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, P: 46-56

15. Wanous, J.P. (1980), ' Organisational Entry: Recruitment, Selection and Socialization of Newcomers,' Addison,-Wesley, Reading M.A.

16. Welsch & Lavan (1981), Interrelationship Between Organisational Characteristics, Job Satisfaction and Professional Behaviour and organisational Climate,' Human Relations, 34,P: 1079-1089.
 


Prof. Dileep Kumar M.
Ex-Professor
Symbiosis (SCMHRD, SCDL), IIIT, SCMLD, SBS
Pune
 

Source: E-mail April 28, 2006

     

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