Knowledge based (KB) systems often called expert systems use human knowledge to solve problems that normally would require human intelligence. The
data used in such systems are called expert knowledge. The rules and data are then called upon to solve the problem. Books and manuals contain a lot of knowledge, but one has to read and interpret the knowledge for it to be useful.
Conventional computer programs perform tasks using decision-making logic that contains little knowledge of the basic algorithm for solving specific problem with the necessary boundary conditions. As the program knowledge changes,
the program also changes and often times have to be changed and rebuilt. On the contrary, an expert system collects small fragment of human knowledge into a knowledge base, which is then used to reason through the problem using
knowledge that is appropriate. A different problem within the domain of the knowledge base may be solved using the same software in the expert system without reprogramming . These systems have the ability to explain the reasoning
process through back traces and handle different levels of confidence and uncertainty, features that the conventional programs do not possess.
Applications of Expert System in Management:
Experts systems have been used in the Industrial world to assess the
evolution of an industry and the capabilities of potential competitors within the industry . These Competitive Intelligence Programs (CIP) may be developed for Pepsi, Marinda, limca, sprite and some other beverages to assist in the
collection of accurate information about its production and sales in respect of its major competitors in order to develop a master plan for production, distribution and pricing in a way that will give it a competitive advantage
over all its competitors. Such an expert system if developed may assist the existing expert system to improve its production/distribution/pricing activities.
So apart from using the expert system to assess the relative
strength and weaknesses of its competitors it can also be used to assess complex and uncertain business environments. These external factors are of some importance in effecting organizational changes .
Expert systems are useful in the analysis of data from poultry farm
for the purpose of controlling farm's environmental conditions. This system may then be used to alert the workers on the farm on diseases the chickens have or may have due to data analysis from the expert system. Experts systems
may also serve as veterinary doctors that are in short supply on our Agricultural farms.
Expert Systems may also be used in an organization like National Institute of Horticulture (NIHORT) in presenting horticultural advice
to gardeners. These systems may be used to train professional and non-professional gardeners on how to plant various species of flowers, fruits and vegetables. This will facilitate the work done in NIHORT as well increase
efficiency and productivity .
Experts systems can be used to train homeowners who are interested in beautifying their homes with flowers, and people interested in starting small-scale flower growing industry.
Expert Systems are useful in financial
institutions for monitoring desired information and also detecting fraud. An expert system may be used to assist where the volume of information to be processed is enormous. It may be used to develop a system that will provide
auditing assistance to its numerous clients. With this type of expert system in place, the frequency of auditing may be increased from 18 months periodic auditing that the company offers now to monthly. This will assist in
arresting abnormal practices quicker than before. It will also increase the productivity of the company as well as enhance its efficiency and effectiveness.
First expert system developed for medical services was MYCIN. This is used to
diagnose the disease and also gives proper prescription depending on the current position of a patient and his/her history. Later on this expert system became a model for almost all medical expert systems. The enhancement in this
system is EMYCIN.
In general expert system can be of assistance whenever a patient needs the attention of a doctor, and none is available .
Expert Systems can also be used in support of production scheduling at major production companies. The expert system
will determine what product or products to produce, at what time, the quantity to produce and how to distribute what is produced. The performances of such systems have been measured against cost of production and customer sales.
HESS is an example of such system developed at the University of Houston in support of product scheduling at major petrochemical refineries. It was found that HESS accomplished task scheduling previously done by human experts on a
more consistent basis.
system is also relevant in the mining industry. Experts systems are used to replace limited number of human experts that assess the air quality of mining operations. Based on the amount of coal and silica in the air, mining
operations must be adjusted to ensure that safety requirements are satisfied.
Expert Systems have also been used in security departments of organizations to replace some operations of the human experts. These systems are used in classification of task that is concerned
with who is permitted to view a document, and who is not as well as classifying documents as official and personal.
This expert system can also be used to classify documents into confidential, secret or top secret.