Prof R K Gupta
BE (Hons), MBA, FIE
Aravali Institute of Management
Jodhpur (Rajasthan)
E-mail : /


Motivation is much abused concept, overused and oversold.

In the real world, the work that people do is sometimes done superbly, but too often it is done atrociously. The reason for the difference is what we call


Motivation is the art of helping people to focus their minds and energies on doing their work as effectively as possible.

Motivation is basically inducing person for action.

Motivation has contextual meaning. Like motivating for getting slim, motivating to complete task in time and so on…….

On its own word motivation alone is not complete.

Motivation is both due to internal and external factors for a person. The internal factors are more important and effective. External factors are not so effective in anyway. This is basis for self motivation.

In real world, motivation is the art of creating conditions that allow everyone of us, warts and all, to get his work done at his own peak level of efficiency.

Individuals, companies and countries that can do that consistently acquire enormous advantages over their competitors.

More often than not such efficiency is needed to be achieved in adverse conditions not conducive to work or inspiration.


In every day language motivation can mean anything from ballyhoo to bribery. In fact there are four common misuses for this much abused word.

    1. Pumping up enthusiasm-Lectures and oratory don't last more than a few minutes only.

    2. Making people happy (or at least, less likely to complain).

    Santa Claus or Family approach. Rewards for quid pro duo

    3. A few easily memorized formulas that allegedly make people either more reasonable or less ornery. Like "one minute Manager", criticism wrapped up in praise what is called "sandwich approach" etc.

    4. Plain bribery-Money as offer for efforts. It is most unproductive and costly. Lot of money is needed to extract small extra efforts.


    Good Motivators who can make people give their best are always in great demand, as they use almost 50% of organizations resource gainfully-the human resource. Good motivators tend to be well paid. But that's only one of the ways to motivate them, and it's rarely the most important. There is also the challenge of figuring out how to bring out the best in someone who has been turned off, or who was never turned on in the first place .There is satisfaction of knowing that you have made a major difference in other people's lives. But perhaps most important, there is the simple fact that for some of us, motivating other people can be fun. When all is said and done, doing something because you like to do it is the best motivator of them all.

    Increasing Motivation Level

RECOGNIZE LOCUS OF CONTROL -- In understanding the relationship of behaviors and outcomes, most people fall within two categories: internal locus of control or external locus of control.

₯ INTERNAL -- Responsibility for outcomes is based on personal actions.

₯ EXTERNAL -- Responsibility for outcomes is based on luck, chance, fate, or others.

People who have high levels of motivation have an internal locus of control and therefore recognize that they must take responsibility for determining obstacles, attempting to overcome obstacles, and taking credit for both success and failure.

LEARNING MOTIVES -- People engage in activities in an order that they most prefer, usually starting with the most enjoyable activity and ending with the least enjoyable activity. That is why a student will often prefer to go roller-blading, order a pizza, and watch TV before sitting down to study. One aspect of increasing motivation is to recognize patterns and change them so as to achieve desired goals.

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING -- Association of positive emotions connected to teachers, books, classes, campus. Etc.

REINFORCEMENT CONDITIONING – To Provide a reward for a desired behavior.  Examples:

₯ If I read my text book for one hour then I can have one cupcake. If I read for an hour and study my notes for an hour them I can have my cupcake while I watch 1/2 hour of television.

₯ If I study every night this week, I will get another A on my next test. (Or, I will make the Dean's list, or, Dad will buy me a new car when I get my degree, or, I will have a high GPA and get a good job.) When a behavior produces a positive outcome there is a strong likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.


₯ Learn a positive behavior from an expert.

₯ Copy the behavior of someone who gets good grades.  Pay attention to their study methods. Ask to see how they organize their notes. Ask them if you can study together.

DEVELOP A CURIOUS MIND -- Perplexity, doubt, and contradiction should arouse curiosity. Use curiosity as a tool to recognize that you are progressing and attempting to learn new things. The desire to know or learn is the motivation factor.

Suggestions for Motivating the Employees

* Recognize individual differences

* Match people to jobs

* Use goals

* Individualize rewards

* Link rewards to performance

* Check the system for equity

* Don't ignore money.


Communication & Motivation
- the Twins of the
Knowledge-based Economy


  • Those without information can't contribute responsibly
  • Those with information find themselves compelled to act

Qualities You Must Possess to Motivate Staff Effectively

Staff will not commit to an uncommitted manager, so it is important that you motivate yourself as well as others:

  • Commit to work
  • Collaborate with staff
  • Place trust in people
  • Be loyal to colleagues
  • Avoid office politics

Manager's Tasks:
Motivating Different People in Different Ways


  • Senior Manager - motivate your superiors to perceive that what you request suits their own purposes: for instance, improving management information with a new system.
  • Colleague - motivate your colleagues to feel that by helping and supporting you they are pursuing their own ends: for instance, putting together a joint plan for office economies.
  • Subordinate - motivate your subordinates to think that following your wishes will bring them satisfaction: for instance, taking over responsibility for an entire job.

The Great Management Mistake

Preparing and cooking ice cream in the same manner as a hamburger would obviously result in failure. You can't treat all ingredients and meals as the same thing - they are all different, requiring different methods and techniques to achieve their particular result.

The greatest management mistake should become painfully clear: many managers treat all employees as the same assortment of ingredients trying to motivate them toward greater success using one cookie-cutter approach.

Just as failure results from throwing ice cream on a grill, so too will a manager fail in inspiring his people if he attempts to do so using a single method.

The people on your team are as different as baked beans and apple pie. They each work from a unique set of motivators, responding to some with excited action and others with boredom or even anger.

It's up to you to discover what drives each one of your team members. What elements excite them? What elements turn them off? It may take a little time and concerted effort on your part, but uncovering the powerful motivators that drive your people will be the best thing you can do for you and your team.

Remember, you may respond to financial rewards or incentives, but that doesn't mean everyone on your team will share your sentiments. Listen to your people. Recognize and utilize their motivators. You are dealing with a wide assortment of ingredients, and following this principle will allow you to prepare each one with amazing success.

The Most Effective Training Method Available

There may be thousands of techniques, principles, and ideas about effective and efficient management, but one method still stands above the rest. Every great manager, coach, and parent knows the secret and puts it to use every moment of every day.

This method not only trains but also inspires others to achieve greater result. With today's business world in dire need of quick and effective training methods, this is one technique you don't want to be without.

Lead by example.

As Emerson once wrote, 'Who you are speaks so loudly I can't hear what you're saying.' It doesn't matter what you want others to do if you are not willing to set the example first.

This presents a definite problem for managers and supervisors who would rather have people 'do as they say and not as they do,' but if you're really interested in improving the performance and experience of the people you rely on, the change have to come from the head down.


Motivation is not solely dependent on money or monitory reward. To be a good motivator you yourself have to be motivated. Ethics and self esteem are pre-requisite for self motivation. It is the inner core values and factors that are best motivators, rather than external factors. To be god motivator one has to be lead by example, should set clear and achievable goals, challenge employees ability, observe equity for all employees and treat individual as different entity and adapt motivators accordingly. There is no common rule or formula to motivate every employee. When the outcomes are clear and reward is visible, he employee is motivated best. Training and skill up-gradation brings motivation to perform better. A better and well informed employee is compelled to perform.

Motivation is the key to happiness
Life is too short to live with regrets
Get motivated today and take control of your future

Prof R K Gupta
BE (Hons), MBA, FIE
Aravali Institute of Management
Jodhpur (Rajasthan)
E-mail : /

Source : E-mail February 28, 2004




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