Vinit Dani
Faculty for Management
Hyderabad Presidency College
(Affiliated to Osmania University)
E-mail :

Times  are  tough for marketers of  branded  products.  Brand  loyalty is near all time low, and percentage of people who feel that some brands are worth paying more  for is declining. In such tough competitive climate, environmentally, compatible companies would only survive. Today consumers are even more conscious than ever, as they prefer to purchase those products and packages that can be recycled  or safely  be disposed off. Today's consumer prefer eco- labeled  products that are not only environmentally friendly but also ecologically safe. The reasons  for such behavioural change among consumers is because  they foresee things to get  worse as no place of the globe will escape the by-products  of Technological Innovations, rapid industrialization and population growth. In fact industrial activities of the past half century have created  serious ecological  problem like  global warming, Ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity, natural resource scarcity, air pollution, acid rain, toxic wastes and industrial accidents.

Marketers in this age are facing a new breed of environmental consumerison representing deep psychological and sociological shifts. Many marketers now grow their business by addressing the specific environmental issues most relevant to their consumers. In the  process, they save  money and enhance corporate and brand image while ensuring future sales for their products. Some of the strategies to create profitable new or improved packages and products that could  possibly balance  consumers needs with environmental  considerations are:-

(1)  Try  and minimize impact on environment:

Use of pesticides and fertilizers in crops potentially pollutes  soil, water and atmosphere and also passes a potential threat to the health of humans and wildlife.  Industries which are dependent on forest produce because  of their conventional practices destroy wild life habitat, induce soil erosion, increase water pollution and leave  behind some ugly scars.

(2)  Use  sustainable  sources of raw material:

As natural resources are rapidly depleting there is an opportunity for alternative technologies and better products for example, paper can be produced  not only from trees but also from fast growing, pest resistant bamboo varieties.

(3)  Reduce  at source:

If  possible try to reduce  or prevent pollution at its source. As cost savings  associated with source reduction  is proportional  to amount of packaging eliminated. Less packaging means less energy required for manufacturing and transportation and less pollution from production stage to packaging  stage.

(4)  Try  and use recycled contest:

With some innovative technologies the important and use of recycled content in consumer products has gained prominence. All these years we thought that only paper, glass, metals and plastic bottles could be recycled but know even products like clothes, garden furniture, paint and motor oil can also be recycled.

(5)  Availability of Products:

Long product life cycle will increasingly become a source of added value and an indicator of quality and convenience.

(6)  Packages  and Products have to be reusable  or refillable:

The throwaway convenience culture is making way for reuse and refilling as alternatives to land filling, incineration and even recycling.

(7)  Design products for  recycling, repair and remanufacturing:

Disposal of highly toxic items like lead - acid batteries, tyres, used motor oil, paints and refrigerators is big problem area. To avoid this,  manufacturers  have to set up infrastructure to facilitate designing of products for recycling, repair and remanufacturing , and  doing  so will not only help them save  money, enhance quality but also get them closer  to their customers.

(8)  Products  should  be disposable:

Products which can easily break down (i.e. biodegradable)  and remain harmless after they go down the drain would be most preferred ones.

(9)  Products  and packaging should be compostable :

In nature, every thing is recycled, waste for one organism becomes food for another, it is  researched that 40%  of one solid wastes are bio degradable materials than can be effectively composted into  humus, an organic matter  that can enrich gardens product designs to tackle this problem could be another growth area.

Conventional marketing with the same assumptions and formulas that guided consumer marketing in high consumption post-war era will not work know.  New (Refer Exhibit-1) strategies and innovative products and services is need of the hour, where Green Marketing  has a significant role to play. Today's successful green marketers no longer view consumers as individuals' appetites for material goods, but as human beings concerned about the condition of the world around them. 

Products are no longer designed in a linear "Cradle to grave" fashion with no regard for the long term impact on society of their eventual disposal or no appreciation for the value of natural resources they represent. Yesterday's resource intensive products are being replaced by innovative products with medical new designs.

The New Green Marketing Paradigm


Conventional Marketing

Green  Marketing

Consumers -->

Consumers with lifestyles -->

"Human beings with lives"

Products -->

"Cradle – to grave"
one size fits all products -->

"Cradle – to –goodie"
Flexible services

Marketing &
Communications -->

Selling  oriented
end benefits -->

 Educational values

Corporate -->

Reactive -->
Independent -->
Competitive -->
Departmentalized -->
Short term oriented -->
Profit maximizing -->

Long Term Oriented
Double Bottom line

* William  MCDonough
Source:  J.Ottman Consulting , Inc.,

These offerings are marketed with ads  and promotions that derive added value from the educational messages they impart and the values they project.

The Corporation that excel at green marketing are those that are      proactive in nature. Aiming to surpass minimal compliance standards, they define the rules by which they and their competitors will be judged. They work hand – in hand within to find a holistic solution to environmental challenge. The corporations have long term rather than short – term orientation and believe in not only making profits but also contributing to the society.


1. The world commission on Environment And Development,  Our Common Future  - Oxford  University
Press – 1987.

2. California  Management review, Towards The Sustainable Corporation, Winter 1994 (P. 90-99)

3. "The Return of Roper's   True – Blue Greens:  Less is More"  Green Market alert, Carl Frankel,
ed. Feb 1994.

4. "Environmental conference" : Green Marketing  from a Marketer's  perspective,"  Hayward, Susan,  of  Yankelovich, Clancy, and Shulman, Presentation to the AMA,  October 1991

5. "Green  Marketing  and Management " – a Global  perspective, John F. Wasik,  Blackwell Publishers 1996.

6. "Environmental Marketing : Strategies, Practice , Theory and Research," Michael  J Polonsky  and Alma  T.  Mintu Wimsatt, eds  The Haworth Press, Inc, New York 1995.

7.  "Green  consumers in the 1990s: - Profile and implication for advertising," James A Roberts, Baylor  University,  Journal of Business Research Vol.36. P.226

8. Rachel's Environmental and Health weekly, No.431  March 2, 1995

9. "Renewable Bioplastic a reality," Green Design 1994 P-5

10. Reid, Craig, "Don't get Bugged by insecticides," Vegetarian Journal Jan-Feb 1995  P.23

11. Green Packaging  2000  Feb 1994  p-4

12. "Green  Marketing – Opportunity for Innovation,"  Jacquelyn A. Ottman,  2nd Editions (P. 47-48&  61-81)

13. "Fridges, Fabrics and Fowl"   E-Magazine, March – April 1996, P-64


Vinit Dani
Faculty for Management
Hyderabad Presidency College
(Affiliated to Osmania University)
E-mail :

Source : E-mail March 15, 2004




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