Training - Concept & Methods


Rameesha Kalra
Monika Bhatia
School of Management
Ansal Institute of Technology
Sector 55, Gurgaon

Human Resource Management is concerned with the planning, acquisition, training & developing human beings for getting the desired objectives & goals set by the organization. The employees have to be transformed according to the organizations' & global needs. This is done through an organized activity called Training.

Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application of knowledge & gives people an awareness of rules & procedures to guide their behavior. It helps in bringing about positive change in the knowledge, skills & attitudes of employees.

Thus, training is a process that tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job or to mould him to be fit for a higher job involving higher responsibilities. It bridges the gap between what the employee has & what the job demands.

Since training involves time, effort & money by an organization, so an organization should to be very careful while designing a training program. The objectives & need for training should be clearly identified & the method or type of training should be chosen according to the needs & objectives established. Once this is done accurately, an organization should take a feedback on the training program from the trainees in the form of a structured questionnaire so as to know whether the amount & time invested on training has turned into an investment or it was a total expenditure for an organization.

Training is a continuous or never ending process. Even the existing employees need to be trained to refresh them & enable them to keep up with the new methods & techniques of work. This type of training is known as Refresher Training & the training given to new employees is known as Induction Training. This is basically given to new employees to help them get acquainted with the work environment & fellow colleagues. It is a very short informative training just after recruitment to introduce or orient the employee with the organization's rules, procedures & policies.

Training plays a significant role in human resource development. Human resources are the lifeblood of any organization. Only through trained & efficient employees, can an organization achieve its objectives.

* To impart to the new entrants the basic knowledge & skills they need for an intelligent performance of definite tasks.
* To prepare employees for more responsible positions.
* To bring about change in attitudes of employees in all directions.
* To reduce supervision time, reduce wastage & produce quality products.
* To reduce defects & minimize accident rate.
* To absorb new skills & technology.
* Helpful for the growth & improvement of employee's skills & knowledge.


The most widely used methods of training used by organizations are classified into two categories: On-the-Job Training & Off-the-Job Training.

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING is given at the work place by superior in relatively short period of time. This type of training is cheaper & less time-consuming. This training can be imparted by basically four methods: -

Coaching is learning by doing. In this, the superior guides his sub-ordinates & gives him/her job instructions. The superior points out the mistakes & gives suggestions for improvement.

Job Rotation: - In this method, the trainees move from one job to another, so that he/she should be able to perform all types of jobs. E.g. In banking industry, employees are trained for both back-end & front-end jobs. In case of emergency, (absenteeism or resignation), any employee would be able to perform any type of job.

OFF THE JOB TRAINING: - is given outside the actual work place.

Lectures/Conferences:- This approach is well adapted to convey specific information, rules, procedures or methods. This method is useful, where the information is to be shared among a large number of trainees. The cost per trainee is low in this method.

Films: - can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily presented by other techniques. Motion pictures are often used in conjunction with Conference, discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized.

Simulation Exercise: - Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a Simulation. Simulation activities include case experiences, experiential exercises, vestibule training, management games & role-play.

Cases: - present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might encounter on the job. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem, evaluate alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be most satisfactory.

Experiential Exercises: - are usually short, structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. For instance, rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts & how to deal with them, an experiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation where employees have to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions.

Vestibule Training: - Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. While expensive, Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures. Additionally, it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job.

Role Play: - Its just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. In this method of training, the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral or written description of a particular situation.

Management Games: - The game is devised on a model of a business situation. The trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competing companies. They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations. Decisions made by the groups are evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are fed back to the groups. The game goes on in several rounds to take the time dimension into account.

In-Basket Exercise: - Also known as In-tray method of training. The trainee is presented with a pack of papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked to take decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions on these within a stipulated time. The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with one another. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance.


No doubt Training is a very powerful tool for the smooth functioning of the organization, but it needs to be used with care in order to derive all the benefits. Here are seven recommendations for getting the best out of this tool: -

1. Learn about the needs and proficiency of each and every employee before an organization invests its effort, time & money on training. Its better to identify the needs & shortcomings in an employee before actually imparting training to him/her.

2. Experienced & skilled trainer, who possesses good amount of knowledge & understanding about the organization's objectives, individual abilities & the present environment, should give training.

3. Active participation from the trainees should be encouraged. There should be a two-way communication between the trainer & trainee.

4. Feedback should be taken from the trainees after the training is over, so that the organization comes to know about the deficiencies in the training program & also suggestions to improve upon the same.

5. Focus of training should be on priority development needs and to produce strong motivation to bring change in employees.

6. The cost incurred on the training program should not exceed its benefits.

7. The method or type of training should be very cautiously selected by the organization depending upon the organizations' resources & an employee's individual need for training.

Thus, training is a vital tool to cope up with the changing needs & technologies, & ever-changing environment. It benefits both the organization as well as the employees.


* Aswathappa K. "Human Resource and Personal Management" Text and Cases, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.
* Chhabra T.N. "Human Resources Management Concepts and Issues, Fourth Edition", Shampat Rai & Co., Delhi.

* Gupta, C. B. (2004), "Human Resource Management", Sixth Edition, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi.

*  Kothari, C. R. (2005), "Research Methodology", Second Edition, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

Rameesha Kalra
Monika Bhatia
School of Management
Ansal Institute of Technology
Sector 55, Gurgaon

Source: E-mail April 26, 2008


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