Rural Health Management in Present Scenario


By

Pooja Sinha
Lecturer
Saroj Institute of Technology and Management
Lucknow
 


Health is as old as human beings the origin of public health care system in India cannot be exactly dated, nor is it possible, in the absence of systematic and detailed records, to trace its evaluation in the country.
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Introduction: -

The evaluation of Health is not exactly known but it is related with sufficient indication available through excavations and ancient writings that health care activities, mainly in the form of some sanitary and curative measures. Since health refers to the general condition of an organism resulting from the interaction with the environment .The environment of the individual is continuously changing and he has to undergo a continuous process of adjustment so as to be continuously healthy.

Health is defined as " A continuing property in the sense that is present from the ovum, Until death, it does not disappearing during an illness to return on recovery but the level changes through out the life." as quoted by John Fry, Primary Care.

The Health can be represented in the form of health sickness spectrum as shown below.


The concept of health may be emphasized is to be considered in its dynamic rather than static context. The health determinants, which can be broadly classified in to biological Behaviour, socio-cultural and environmental. Biological and behavioral determinants are directly related to the individuals. These two health's determinants are primarily individuals oriented and hence, they may vary from one individual to another. The socio-cultural or environmental determinants, on the other hand are general in their impact. Of these, the first one is made up of community mores, income, education, and occupation. religion, nutrition etc and letter concern the nature and quality of the physical ,biological and chemical environment within which the individual functions.

Rural Health management in pre- Independence period :-

Health management system was continued with the modification from time to time right till the advent of British rule in the country. it was however ,very rudimentary and highly localized in nature. The east India Company has appointed different commission from time to time to look in to the causes for the extremely unsatisfactory health conditions. In India Rural health is continued be a perpetual problems and up to 1943 the government of India not decided to reconnoiter the rural health conditions.

Rural Health management in Independent India :-

Republic India setup planning commission in 1951 to integrate rural development through community Development blocks with agriculture, health as a key sector .  Government of India setup in 1952 primary health's centers for rural masses catering to the needs of 40nto 60 thousands population These were put under administrative control of community block development officers during the first ten years.

Later for remote area sub-centers was setup catering to the need of 10000 population with in charge auxiliary Nurse midwifes. It was necessary to evaluate the progress made in the field of health management .The Government of India appointed different committees ..These committees have suggested certain measures to increase health care services provided PHC's and sub center.

The health management system has been the shared responsibilities of central and provincial Government in independent India. The main responsibility for providing health services to the people lies with the state government. There is a separate joint director in the state to look rural health matters. At district level the C.M.O (Chief Medical Officers) is overall in charge of all health related activities for urban and rural areas. Creating the post of deputy C.M.O for rural health functions. To provide health care services the state Government setup district hospital, upgraded PHC's, PHC's sub-center, Dispensaries. At the village level involvement of the community was realized to have health for all by 2000 A.D through Alma Ata USSR declaration. Rural schemes provided the health care services by village health guide and female trained birth attendant who are the part of the community. To provide effective health care services to the rural masses the Government of India launched Rural Health Mission on April 2005 for catering the need of the rural people by the people. To provide health care services the state Government setup district hospital, upgraded PHC's, PHC's sub-center, Dispensaries.

Conclusion: -

The concept of health into wider sense extends to cover physical, mental & social well-being. This health is of paramount importance not only to the individual but to the society as well. The concept of health management emphasis society responsibilities in health care. Health management has added significance in the context of rural areas. Health management can play a crucial role in determining the quantity of health care facilities available to the community through community involvement.
 


Pooja Sinha
Lecturer
Saroj Institute of Technology and Management
Lucknow
 

Source: E-mail May 2, 2008

          

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