Impact of Information Technology in Improving the Quantity Education in L.P.G. Era


By

Mr. Ranjan Upadhyaya
Faculty
FMS, WISDOM, Banasthali University
Banasthali-Newai-Rajasthan-304022
 


Abstract:

In the era of electronic, innovations of methods, process of information, communication and knowledge are taking place. These innovative changes demand new knowledge and skill for effective execution and dissemination of information technology is the uphill task. How information technology use has surface from the past to present and in its further use in the future. The usage, relevance, importance, diversified field, the different users of information technology are well elaborated. The socio – economic impact has also being defined here. The cost effective tool, the training and importance of good education to the young generation enrolling themselves in the different higher educational institutions in India is the hallmark of the study. The information technology usesage as game plane for developing nation is the epic center. The lacuna and the government support to higher educational institution are highlighting features. How these higher educational institutions are taking the help of the information technology for the young minds is the key of the elaboration of the survival of the higher educational institution keeping pace in the taste and quality of education is the survival of the fittest is the mantras in today's fast changing environment.
                                                                                                                             
(250 words)

Key words: Infomatiue, hallmark, usage, quality education

Introduction

The term "Information technology" in English, "Infomatiue' in French and "Informatika" in Russian encompass the notion of 'Information Handling'. In stricter sense information technology is the new science of collecting, storing, processing and transmitting information and connotes an ensemble of technologies. They particularly cover the computer's capability to store and process information (also know information processing) and communication technology, which is capable of transmitting information to distances. Basically information technology is the application of tools and methods that support through which or by means of which information is transferred, recorded, edited, stored, manipulated, and disseminated. According to the advisory council for Applied Research and Development of the Cabinet Office (Sept. 1980) 1 of U. K. there are three key components of the new technology i.e. new ways to store information compactly and cheaply; new mechanism to manipulate, scan and search, such stores records; and new facilities for cheap and rapid transmission of information over long distance.

In the 1980s, visionary plans for integrating information technology into the research, teaching in Higher education institutes. Initially, much of the progress toward these plans went more or less unnoticed by most of the University community. More recently, dramatic changes have occurred: information technology has become part of the fabric of academic life at Higher education institutes, and it is being used in ways never before imagined by people who never imagined they could use it. Prospective students and parents are no longer impressed that we have microcomputer laboratories; they want to know how many, and what capabilities they have and they find it unacceptable to stand in long lines to use them. Faculty is no longer impressed that they are able to use computer technology in a few classrooms; they want to know why they can't use it in more classrooms, why there is not sufficient staff to keep them operating, and they are demanding increasingly sophisticated capabilities. Connectivity is assumed to be "a given," and the demand for faster and more robust connectivity continues to grow. Failure of any of these key services causes extreme dissatisfaction because it suspends the ability to work. In short, we have been successful, to a varying extent, in realizing the spirit of the visions laid out in earlier planning documents. But to provide users only with the appearance of completeness and not the real substance will rapidly and dramatically undermine the University's aspirations to preeminence. The "visions" described in the following pages are statements of what must be done in order to preserve the quality and effectiveness of the information technology investments we have already made. We recognize the fiscal uncertainty of these times. It will take a concerted effort to continue moving forward. However, maintaining the status quo today means to lose ground. Quite simply, the status quo is not an option.

Objective:

To study the root cause of less percentage of Information Technology usage, impact and success in everyone part of life.

Research Design:

A different source of secondary information has been taken into the consideration for undergoing these important issues. A case study of one of the National premier University of our country has been taken to understand the impact and to satisfy the defined objectives of this research study.

Information Technology Education at a Glance:

The objective of the education system in India, in a fundamental sense, is manpower planning aimed at equipping people right from childhood the sense for bringing changes in our society and social life. It aims at creating intellectual awareness of our economy, social, political and cultural ethos. Indeed education is the basis of all planning, all development and all progress.

As such, our programmes of education should lie at the base of efforts to forge bonds of common citizenship, to harness energies of young people and to develop natural and human resources of every part of the country.  The social change involves the transformation of society from traditionalism to modernism, from backward, and from apathetic ignorance to active enlighten. In other words, social change brings about a new awakening in the masses with regard to their rights, duties and responsibilities towards society. The government has been grappling with educational reforms; the system has not moved out of the rut and is stilling way behind our cultural and development needs. There is an utter need for revolutionizing the process of education in India right from the primary stage to university level. While in countries like ours, the problem of providing education on a national scale appears to be so difficult to solve by making educational rural – based unto the highest level. This is evident of the emphasis given by an industrially advanced nation like Japan to elementary education. A significant contradiction in our educational system is that while it should have been an instrument for bringing for about equality, in practices it has systematically sharpened and deepened inequalities. It has not been appreciated that for bringing about social change and social justice, the major thrust should be on primary education because it is that the content and formalism of education scares away the children of the poor and the backward classes. It is that wrong ideas and attitude towards national and social issues are inculcated. The innovation is now quite well established in the education world.  The new and innovative approaches that are being adopted in the modern educational set up. Many institutions have adopted quite new strategies for development. Information technology has revolutionized the pattern of the education system. Mass education, in the context of our country, planners should make more vigorous efforts to spread education in rural areas so that the present in egalitarian character of the educational system is corrected. Also, the non- formal sector of education needs to be given its due priority in the present situation of vast illiteracy. All people need to be brought into the mainstream of our culture and heritage so as to mould better human beings and citizens.  At present 190 million children aged 6 to 14 in the country out of which almost 55 million of them are out of school, the major thrust has to be on cent per cent enrollment. This is to be matched by efforts to keep them interested in education. Currently, about 40 percent of the children drop out in the primary school stage. More vigorous efforts are required to spread education in rural areas so as to change the total environment and thinking in villages.  The technology is one of the highest ingredients, which makes the accessibility of acceptance with understanding of teaching and learning. The implication of competent, cheap, and reliable and well-defined technology in teaching and learning is excellent and very useful tool of solving the present problems. Today's the teaching and its learning approaches has changed from classroom teaching techniques, teacher mediated method to videodiscs, CD- ROMS, web – based training, wireless communication etc. There is very high significance of technology in the education in the countries like India where inequalities in education are high and social unawareness about the education also high. The use of technology can bolster the new waves. It can enhance and enrich the innovative skill of the common people. The technology is non-stop advancement of teaching and learning. It is one of the best modern approaches, which with applied can inculcate and propagate the originality of creation with the lust for longitivity. The research has shown the tremendous impact and implications on the information technology methods of teaching in arousing the It tentacles of development of learning. The countries like India where 35% of the population is illiterate, the rapid development of information and communication has given new dimension and passion for excellence in creation of innovative ways of e-learning with the latest technologies like handheld computers, which are affordable, portable and versatile in nature. Digital cameras and portable scanners have also found birth in the implication of new technology. The teaching in the higher education with the Information technology has become the art and need as the numbers of the students are increasing day by day in all the streams. It has been found that the number in discipline with the intervention has become the need and its relevance has improved and continuously striving for more and more. So the day of past has become the days of today's requirements and its validity can not be ignored as the time tested methods are unearthing the today's requirements. Many organizations are moving in the same direction and now the things are changing in the faster speeds as the technology savvy world wants more development not only in education but also in around. India is fourth largest economy in world, attracting global demand for its Information technology and software services. If rural India can be benefited by above define technological tools, it can capture United State of America's market of $ 87 billion in 2008. For this India need sound policy in telecommunication, infrastructure etc. for maximum advantages / advancement of technologies at the grass root level. The latest Information Technology 2005 policy of the government of India is again edging in this direction. The technology seems to have developed a truly wondrous ability that a compressing time and collapsing memories into snug till capsules are as fresh as yesterday. We with talk about the educational institute in India we find that it are our lacuna that we are not able to maintain the quality of education institute in our country. The reason many be many but we are trying to search through the telescope that what are those reasons that how we have reached to such situation with our ethos and culture had always rebuke us to regain the destiny of the golden past of the renowned education in the world. Our golden history had foretold us to be always ahead in all fields. The deplorable condition of the education had put us a century back. The story never ends there it is just a start and the graph continue to go down.

Diagram – 1


India should realized that

"Education makes the country perfect"

The irony never ends there because we had started our education system on the basis for catering the need of the administrative purpose, which never indulged itself to any innovative or productive work or innovation with new inventions. The masses get rolled them in the routine of this system and ended up with the bulk of the unemployed kitty. Which further become the liabilities of our motherland instead of assets, which turn out to be great problem for the nation? We had never utilized ourselves to enrich the past records or the experience of our golden heritage of the education system, which had been furnished in the past and showed the world, the light of all-round development. The educationist do try to raise the issue of the education in our country but what happen we all know it very well it is being broken up by the people in the government who want to mint money in the name of the education. The story of the different higher studies institutions in our country is also under the clouds. Take the case of different Management or Technical primer educational institutes why they are continuously failing in achieving their respective goals or the objective for which they had been set up? The non-technical colleges and the different universities roughly around 250 government universities and it number of the deemed or private universities and roughly around 1000 plus colleges for different streams. Case of the different polytechnics and different Industrial training institutes has also failed in their path of self-employment. Now these all institutions had become the extra luggage for the government to carry on and pay the salary of the millions and millions of the teaching and non-teaching staffs placed around the whole country.                                                      

Information technology has enlightened its role in the following fields:

i) Trade
ii) Social Change
iii) Impact Business
iv) Impact on Transformation

The post-industrial period has brought considerable advances and innovations in Technology. As a result of this many new interdisciplinary fields have emerged. Information technology is one of them. Information technology is recent and comprehensive term, which describes the whole range of processes for the acquisition, storage, transmission, retrieval and processing of vocal, pictorial, textual and numeric information. Such process may be mechanical in nature. We live in a turbulent time marked by the emergence of knowledge and information as a fundamental capital of our society. Universities are the primary creators of information and knowledge, and they have played seminal roles in the use of technology to move society into this new era. To remain a leading institution in the 21st century, higher education institutes must leverage and expand upon its base of mission-critical information technology.

Generally we see that the impact on education is on the following grounds

i) Written communication:
a) Audio
b) Visual
c) Print media etc.

ii) Non- Verbal Communication;
a)   Television
b) Internet
c) Laptops etc.

Uses of Information technology in Educational Institutions:

It can be covered with different seven heads of sub themes:

i) Professionalism.
ii) Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education.
iii) Values in Teacher Education, Curriculum Transaction in Development of Teachers' Competencies.
iv) Development of Teachers Competencies through Open and Distance Learning Mode.
v) Empowerment of Teacher in ICT Based Teaching, Liberalization.
vi) Quality Control in Teacher Preparation.
vii) Scenario of Teacher Education in the Knowledge Economy.

It stressed that with it change in information and communication technology, value crisis, and socio religious conflicts, new challenges are being faced by Information Technology world of education. The Impact of Information technology in education of therefore becomes imperative to be sensitive, innovative and need based in the context of international trends. It highlighted the excessive interference of the successive governments and fragment changes in their policies, which are impediment in the smooth functioning of teacher education. Information on the tremendous change in the knowledge system and the process of acquisition of learning in the age of ICT, knowledge economy, and globalization is the key to new change. The nature of schooling, curriculum, teaching learning process and its management has been witnessing a paradigm shift in this context. Teacher education which is one of the significant components of educational reforms needs to be reshaped – its vision and operational strategies keeping in view the emerging challenges in teaching profession and education system in general. It had a dream of making the Institutes of Education in the model of Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs). For the fulfillment of his dream it suggested to plan comprehensive Colleges of Education and integration of general and professional education and of content and pedagogy. Teacher education should be taken over by higher education. Specialization in a stage should be strictly enforced. There should be a collaboration of private and public. Teacher education should be considered an individualized course. The most important measure is to strengthen the preparation of teacher educators and to restructure the different professional and non- professional courses . Teacher educators should be provided with adequate equipment. There should be a pre-service course, which will prepare the teacher educators for specialization in staring level of education or in pedagogy of school subjects or models of teaching education. Distance education may be used to provide specialization in each innovation, information, skills in communication strategies, learning relationships, skills of guidance and counseling and dissemination of research findings relevant to teacher education. Research on knowledge dimension as well as process dimension of teaching should be promoted with full spirit. Self-learning and Peer Group learning should go hand in hand. Healthy growth of institutional culture must prevail in education system. It emphasized that globalization has brought into our country free flow of investment. It has stimulated the dimension of multinational development. Both negative and positive consequences have cropped up. Too much attention is given to the commercial growth. Social sector is yet to be taken care.

Pt. J. Nehru's vision remains more relevant in this connection.

"Trained manpower is India's strength"

There has been constant explosion in knowledge sphere. The mushroom growth of educational institutions creates compromising situation with respect to quality improvement. It emphasized on resource utilization, work culture, and need for devoted workers. Working people should be rewarded. Hard work alone can bring revolution. It focused on integrating knowledge components, competency development components and value components in education so that professionalism can be of great help in information technology education. Expanding the purpose and target audience of distance teacher training programme; improving the design and effectiveness of instructional systems, material and learner support; Using steadily more sophistical ICTs; and, Extending the variety of courses and the diversity of participating teachers.

The Commonwealth of Learning (CoL) is an inter-governmental organization created by commonwealth heads of government to encourage the development and sharing of open learning/distance education, knowledge resources and technologies. Curriculum needs and demands have become extremely varied and complex. National Focus Group on Teacher Education for Curricular Renewal (ECR - 2005) 2 endorses that there is a shift from rigid and fixed curricular content and experiences to flexible, learner-negotiated objectives and individually paced and sequenced learning. Such experienced learning need to be assessed by criterion-referenced testing. Innovative ways of curriculum development and transaction would obviously have their implications on the nature of competencies required by the teachers and the content vis-à-vis organization of the teacher development curriculum. There has been criticism of teacher development courses and programmes mainly using theoretical experiences. These seem to be irrelevant to the real situations in the classroom. If history were taught with its applications in selected situations trainees would be able to extend that to other situations even if the context changes. Learning environment promotes meaningful learner engagement and critical, creative and complex thinking by learners. Based on the processes involved in the collaborative and reflective practices it is possible to conceptualize an Information technology curriculum development for an ODL based program. The reading materials, media based materials, resource materials, interactive sessions, technology-based interactions, and assignments etc. would play an appropriate role in facilitating the trainees. Innovations should be useful and economical in terms of time and money, easy to implement, there should be availability of infrastructure and human resources transferability of acquired skill, environment friendly and should be interesting and not monotonous. It presented findings on his experiments relating to computer based diagnostic tests on school students. His other contribution was also presented in the field of digitized instructional material improving theoretical understanding of both teacher educators and trainees3.

Focus of Ninth Plan:

Thrust areas are: measures for quality improvement and modernization of syllabi, renewal of infrastructure, extra-budgetary resource mobilization and greater attention to issues in governance. Issues of access and relevance would receive attention. Conferment of grater autonomy to deserving colleges and professional upgradation of teachers through Academic Staff Colleges would be given priority4. Emphasis is being placed on consolidation and optimal utilization of the existing infrastructure through institutional networking, restructuring expansion, so as to only meet the demand of the unserved areas with a focus on women and under privileged sections. The Open University system, which has been growing in popularity and size, is striving to diversify courses and offerings and gain wider acceptability by upgrading its quality. It would focus more sharply on the educational needs of women and rural society, as well as professional training of in-service employees.

Table No -1
a) IX Plan (Five – Year - Plan)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (Rs. In crores)

Year

Plan

Non-Plan

1997 – 1998

352.10

545.00

1998 – 1999

360.35

1009. 00

1999 – 2000

376.00

975.00

2000-2001

435.00

1000.00

2001-2002

467.78

1020.68

                                          (Sources: Ministry of Education, GOI, New Delhi, 2005) 5

Table No –2
b)  X Plan (Five – Year - Plan)

 YEAR

Plan

Non-Plan

2002-03

559.76

1100.00

2003-04

516.75

1132.30

2004-05

719.75 

1182.85 

2005-06

374.41
(upto 31.8.05)

609.17
(upto 31.8.05)

                                                   (Sources: Ministry of Education, GOI, New Delhi, 2007) 5


Special Reference to Rajasthan
A Case Study on 'Gyan Jyoti'
(Impact of Information technology on Higher Education)
Banasthali University (www.banasthali.org):

Banasthali University is a national level institute of Women education and is counted in leading educational institutes of country in the field of Information technology. University aims to develop the throughout personality of students, representing an ideal mixture of spiritual heritage and scientific achievements of east and west. Apaji Institute Mathematics and Applied Computer Technology Institute of Banasthali University has implemented a large number of projects in past two decades, while moving towards its objective to develop Information technology in Indian Languages. Banasthali University has been involved in formal Computer Science education from the past two decades and has also implemented a large number of research and development projects in the field of Technology Development for Indian Language (TDIL) under the ministry of Communication and Information technology. The aim of 'Gyanjyot' is to encourage the trainees towards IT based small industry. There are infinite possibilities of employment in the field of IT Localization. Gyan-Jyoti is an attempt in this direction.

The origin of Banasthali is unique in more ways than one. To realize a dream, which he had cherished since his boyhood, Pandit Hiralal Shastri resigned his prestigious post of Secretary in the Home and Foreign Department in the erstwhile Jaipur State in 1927, and selected the remote village of Banthali (as was Banasthali originally called) as the centre of his life's work. His plan was to organize a program of rural reconstruction on the lines laid down by Gandhi ji and also to train public workers through constructive service of the people. The concept of Banasthali took form in an ethos of dedication to the nation. It also had before it a vision of Indian Culture. Therefore Banasthali's whole architecture stands upon the twin foundation pillars of Nationalism and Indian Culture. The members of the academic staff of the university should be permitted to engage themselves in Consultancy practice to such extent, which does not interfere with the discharge of their duties. The reasons being:

* In many departments Banasthali University offers expertise and a host of specialized facilities, which can be used by academia and industry and is of mutual benefit. In addition it gives recognition to Banasthali University.

* Consultancy/Sponsored Research projects provide enrichment of the experience and knowledge through interacting in the professional sphere. The Academics also get a chance of experimenting under actual service conditions.

* Consultancy also provides an opportunity to students to see the sphere of their chosen profession.

* It provides financial return (small or large) to Banasthali University, the faculty and the staff in general.

I.T. Project 'Gyan – Jyoti Project:

Banasthali University has entailed IT culture development amongst the women of Rajasthan under the project 'Gyan-Jyoti' sponsored by Department of Information technology and Communication (DoIT and C), Govt. of Rajasthan aiming at grass root participation in e-governance through IT localization. In the first phase of the project (June, 2005 – October, 2005) seven days training workshops were organized at the district headquarters in each of the 32 districts of Rajasthan. In each workshop more than 40 women trainees, hailing from all age groups, participated totaling to 1440. The workshops not only had sessions on operating a computer and IT applications in Hindi but also on Entrepreneurship and setting up knowledge based home/ small office enterprise. The trainees were facilitated interaction with subject experts, District Industry Centers and Lead Bank Managers to learn about small-scale enterprise. They were also introduced to e-Mitra where in an entire session they practiced use of e-Mitra. The women participation was overwhelming and the adaptation of IT applications in their own language was very enthusiastic. The number of applications was very high and hence, the department took a decision to repeat the project. And thus the second phase of 'Gyan-Jyoti' was sponsored. 

In the second phase (December, 2006 – May, 2007), the training model was slightly altered. It was implemented at three levels. In level I, five days workshops were organized at each of the 32 districts headquarters where around 50 women participated in each district. The selected trainees having potential were further trained in level II at each of the seven divisional headquarters (~ 50 at each division) and finally around select 100 trainees were trained for capacity building in a 7 days workshop at Banasthali University. These trainees were also put to the NAC (NASSCOM Assessment of Competence) test by NASSCOM conducted specifically for them at Banasthali University. 

The second phase of the project is successfully implemented training 1550 women at level I, 345 at level II and 118 at level III. 107 participated in the NAC test the test scores along with certification have been delivered to the trainees. A next phase of the project is being planned. The report presenting workshop statistics, program and feedback from participants for the second phase is enclosed herewith.

Outcomes/ Statistics:
Table No – 3 -Workshops Duration:

S. No.

Division

District

First Level
(District)

Second Level (Division)

1.

Bharatpur

Bharatpur
Dholpur
Karoli
Sawaimadhopur

8-12 January, 2007
25-29 December, 2006
23-27 December, 2006
24-28 December, 2006

20-24 January, 2007

2.

Kota

Baran
Bundi
Jhalawar
Kota

31 Jan-4 Feb,  2007
28 Jan-1 Feb, 2007
30 Feb-3 March, 2007
29 Feb-2 March, 2007

26-30 April, 2007

3.

Jaipur

Jaipur
Alwar
Jhunjhunu
Sikar
Dausa

22-26 March, 2007
7-11 February, 2007
17-21 February, 2007
9-13 February, 2007
8-12 February, 2007

3-7 May, 2007

4.

Bikaner

Bekaner
Churu
Shri Ganganagar
Hanumangarh

14-18 March, 2007
9-13 March, 2007
7-11 March, 2007
24-28 April, 2007

11-15 May, 2007

5.

Jhodhpur

Barmer
Jeshalmer
Jalore
Jhodhpur
Sirohi
Pali

16-20 March, 2007
15-19 March, 2007
6-19 March, 2007
10-14 March, 2007
26 Feb-2 March, 2007
25 Feb-1 March, 2007

15-19 May, 2007

6.

Udaipur

Banswara
Chittorgarh
Dungarpur
Udaipur
Rajsamand

25-29 March, 2007
26-30 April, 2007
24-28 March, 2007
23-27 March, 2007
20-24 February, 2007

20-24 May, 2007

7.

Ajmer

Ajmer
Bheelwara
Nagaur
Tonk

--
12-16 January, 2007
18-22 February, 2007 
22-26 December, 2007

20-24 May,2007


District wise number of trainee women

Graph No – I


Graph No – II

Figure- III(a)

Figure-III (b)

Figure-III (c)
First level workshop

* In all 1550 women participated in the program

* 28% women trainees belonged to <20 years age group, 34%  from 20-25 years age group, 12% from 26–30 years age group, 8% from 30-35 years age group and 10% women were from age group > 35 years.

* 28% women were married rest 72 % were unmarried

* 23% women were postgraduate, 43% undergraduate and 34% women were of senior secondary level.

* In spite of the fact that in the advertisement, computer experience was required, 76% trainees were unaware of computer, 20% women had 1-year experience and only 4% women had work experience of 1-3 years on computer.

* After the training, only about 24% women were found eligible for the next level work shop and invited for the second phase

Second level workshop

* For this level all the women selected from first level (1398) and second level (1550) were invited .The total were 860 (490 first level, 441 second level)

* Only 345 women out of 860 participated in training programmes

* 21% women trainees belonged to < 20 years age group, 37% from 20-25 years age group, 19% from 26 – 30 years age group, 11% from 30-35 years age group and 12 % women were from age group > 35 years. That is, age divination was just like first level.

* 30% women were married rest 70 % were unmarried.

* 27% women were postgraduate, 51% undergraduate and 22% were of senior secondary level. That is, more graduate women were found eligible than women of senior secondary level.

* 56% trainees were unaware of computer, 32% women had 1-year exposure and only 9% women have work experience of 1-3 years on computer.

* After the training, only about 42% (146) women were found eligible for final workshop.

Third level workshop

* After the second level work shop, 118 women out of 146 women participated in training programmes. (81%).

* 21% of these were <20 years, 42% between 20-25 years, 14 % between 26–30 years, 12% between 30-35 years and 11% women were from age group > 35 years.

* 27% women were married rest 73 % were unmarried.

* 29% women were postgraduate, 52% undergraduate and 19% were of senior secondary level.

* 61% trainees were unaware of computer, 29% women had 1-year experience and only 10% women had work experience of 1-3 years on computer.

District wise number of trainee women


 S. No.

District

No. of trainees in Phase I

No. of trainees in phase II

No. of women for II level

No. of women in third level

Phase I

Phase II

Phase I

Phase II

1.

Tonk

38

50

4

19

2

5

2.

Jhalawar

49

50

4

12

1

2

3.

Baran

55

50

4

3

1

2

4.

Ajmer

55

-

7

-

1

-

5.

Bikaner

43

50

12

13

5

4

6.

Bundi

40

50

4

9

3

3

7.

Bhilwara

40

0

1

4

1

-

8.

Chittorgarh

38

50

2

9

1

3

9.

Dausa

44

50

4

9

1

1

10.

Udaipur

40

50

-

13

-

4

11.

Banswara

60

50

1

9

-

3

12.

Jaisalmer

46

50

4

9

1

4

13.

Sawaimadhopur

41

50

2

2

2

2

14.

Jhunjhunu

42

50

1

2

1

1

15.

Dungarpur

41

50

3

7

-

-

16.

Rajsamand

43

50

-

7

-

4

17.

Hanumangarh

50

50

3

10

1

4

18.

Nagaur

41

50

-

5

-

3

19.

Barmer

48

50

1

5

1

2

20.

Alwar

51

50

3

7

2

3

21.

Jodhpur

42

50

4

12

1

5

22.

Karoli

40

50

6

4

2

4

23.

Dholpur

41

50

2

2

2

2

24.

Jalore

39

50

3

8

-

1

25.

Sirohi

51

50

-

1

-

1

26.

Pali

40

50

1

4

1

-

27.

Shri Ganganagar

41

50

-

8

-

6

28.

Sikar

37

50

2

6

2

1

29.

Bharatpur

36

50

3

27

1

5

30.

Kota

38

50

5

9

2

-

31.

Churu

42

50

1

4

1

2

32.

Jaipur

46

50

7

10

2

3

Total

1398

1550

345

118


Conclusion

Teacher is the single-most important factor in determining student achievement. Nations need not only sufficient numbers of teachers, but also need effective teachers. "Quality education produces good learning outcomes – and the initial training and preparation of teachers contribute to this aim" (UNESCO 2006, P.49). In a Foreword to the publication "Global Perspectives on Teacher Learning: Improving Policy and Practice" (Schwille, Dembele and Schubert 2007, P.11), Mark Bray, the Director of the International Institute for Educational Planning, Paris highlights the global perspective of teacher preparation in the following manner:

"Teacher preparation has become a controversial issue all over the world. While everybody agrees that teacher education and teacher training are very important the question of how much formal teacher preparation is needed and how it should be delivered is the object of much debate and experimentation in developed as well as developing countries. This answer depends on several factors, such as the level of financial resources, the number of teachers to be trained, the present structure of training, the knowledge level of graduates who choose to become teachers, and the attraction of the teaching profession6."

The Co-General Editor, Francoise Caillods refers to attributes found among effective teachers which include analytical thinking, initiative, curiosity, a passion for learning, professionalism, confidence, trustworthiness, fairness and respect for others. The nations are not unanimous about the process of acquiring various characteristics of teacher effectiveness and also the technique of stimulating and sustaining them. In Introduction, the authors point out the complexity of teacher education and training:

"Teacher education is complex and raises many challenges, such as the lack of agreement among experts, policy- makers and reformers about what is most important; competing views on the importance of subject matter, pedagogy, knowledge of students, etc.; the problematic relationship of theory to practice; disagreement over what teachers learn best from experience; the lack of standardization or even shared expectations for many aspects of many programmes; and finally the great variation in the commitments and prior knowledge of future teachers7." (P. 27)

According to the authors, the continuum of teacher training starts with the apprentice of observation of teaching of teachers they had during their own schooling. This has a powerful effect on how future and beginning teachers think about teaching. In fact, this influence is more powerful than the influence of formal teacher training. Formal teacher training, therefore, faces daunting task of replacing influence of bad practices that teacher trainees have observed during their own school days by good practices suggested in teacher training programmes. There have been many instances of untrained teachers performing better than trained teachers. Training provides certain skills; but whether to utilize these skills or not depends on the professional values and the attitude of the concerned teacher. Again, formulating strategies for teacher training has become problematic because of lack of consensus on what constitutes a qualified teacher. Teaching is an art as well as science, so also teacher training. Cultural roles and identities of teachers vary from one country to another. Hence, definition of teacher quality and details of teacher training vary from country to country. Teacher training practical in USA is mostly under control of schools, whereas in UK, it is under the control of teacher training institutions. In recent times, much stress has been given on delivering quality teacher training programmes.   In order to improve its initial (pre-service) teacher training, every nation needs to study the situation in other developed countries. Within a nation, details of teacher training also vary from one State to another. In UK, details of teacher education programmes vary between England and Scotland. A number of developed countries, being dissatisfied with the level of quality of training provided by their initial teacher training courses; they provide for induction programme for beginning teachers, generally in the first year of their service8. Of course, the induction programmes are not universal. Teacher licensing system found in a few developed countries is also not universal.

"Teachers are the single most important element of the school system, and the country is already facing a severe shortage of qualified and motivated school teachers at different levels. It is urgent to restore the dignity of school teaching as a profession and provide more incentives for qualified and committed teachers. Non-teaching official duties such as electoral activities should not be allowed to interfere with the teaching process. Forums that allow and encourage teachers to exchange ideas, information and experiences, including a web-based portal, should be developed. At the same time, there should be transparent systems for ensuring accountability of school teachers. As far as possible, teachers should be recruited to particular schools. The training of teachers is a major area of concern at present, since both pre-service and in-service training of school teachers is extremely inadequate and also poorly managed in most states. Pre-service training needs to be improved and differently regulated in both public and private institutions, while systems for in-service training require expansion and major reform that allows for greater flexibility 9."

In India, there is much variation in case of policies of various state governments in respect of initial (pre-service) teacher training programmes. Variations are prominent in respect of aspects such as: state subsidy for tuition fee, degree of scope for private initiative, scope for self financing programmes by examining bodies including universities, government institutions and private managements, involvement of universities through their Departments of Education, admission into teacher education courses on the basis of performance in common admission test, amount of fees, qualifications necessary for the head of the teacher training institution / department and for the faculty members, level of content knowledge of a faculty member for teaching a method subject or for supervising lessons during internship / practice teaching,, etc. The aspects on which universities inside a State / UT also vary include total marks for a course, number of papers for theory and practical, titles of papers and the aspects covered by them, lesson planning formats, amount of time devoted for observation of a lesson delivered during internship / practice teaching period and for the purpose of evaluation of teaching performance, specialization of the faculty member required for observing a lesson, number of spells in which internship is organized, types of records maintained by teacher trainees for their practical examination, number and categories of practical work other than teaching, marks distribution for theory and practical, percentage of internal assessment, manner of assessment of theory papers, amount of time given for observation of teaching of school teachers and types of schools covered for the purpose, degree of involvement of school teachers in supervision of teacher trainees 10, etc. The aspects on which institutions, affiliated to an examining body within a State / UT vary include dress code for teacher trainees and faculty members, organization of daily morning assembly that includes prayer and other activities, etc. 

So at last we can conclude that the impact of Information Technology is vast and its growth lead to all round development of our motherland.

References

Books/ Journals/ Reports:

1. A report published by Advisory council for Applied Research and Development of Cabinet Office. K., Sept. 1980,

2. Education for Curricular Renewal (ECR - 2005), Commonwealth of Learning (COL), U. K. 2005,

3. Report on Conference Report Indian Association of Teacher Educators (IATE) XXXIXTH National Conference Professionalism In Teacher Education In the Context of ICT, Knowledge Economy and Globalization 10-11 February 2006 University of Allahabad, U.P., India, 2006, 

4. Acharya Ramamurti, chairman of the committee constituted by central government during the regime of Late Shri Rajiv Gandhi to look after the quality of education in higher educational institutions in India, 1986, 1992

5. Ministry of Education, GOI, New Delhi, 2005,

6. Task Force on Human Resource Development (HRD) by G.O.I. in Information Technology (IT) vide notification no.460/31/C/27/2000-E and SI dated 1.8.2000

7. A report presented on Information Technology and was discussed in details in the first meeting of the Task Force on 24th August 2000, constituted by Human Resource Development (HRD) by G.O.I. in Information technology (IT) vide notification no.460/31/C/27/2000-E and SI dated 1.8.2000

8. Draft Interim Report, Inputs were received from the Ministry of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Department of Elementary Education and Literacy, Directorate-General of Employment and Training, All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), UGC, NAAC, IITs, particularly IIT (Delhi), IIITs and some of the RECs, 2005,

9. Annexure I - No.460/31/C/27/2000-E&S.I Government of India (Bharat Sarkar) Prime Minister's Office (Pradhan Mantri Karyalaya) New Delhi Dated 1.8.200

10. A report by Department of Telecommunication, G.O.I., - No.460/31/C/27/ 2000-E&S.I Government of India (Bharat Sarkar) Prime Minister's Office (Pradhan Mantri Karyalaya) New Delhi Dated 1.8.2000Department of Telecommunications, Govt. of India, 2005, Creating Public Information on Information Technology Manpower, Information Technology –Act 2005, para 2.15 – 5.1 All India Council for Technical Education 4.5.2000,

Different Internet Sites:

* http://www.itinhindi.org/Gyan-Jyoti/Gyan-JyotiII/english_part/statistics_frame.htm, dated 10/4/2008 at 17.35 P.M

* http://www.itinhindi.org/Gyan-Jyoti/Gyan-JyotiII/english_part/workshop_frame.htm, dated 10/4/2008 at 17.35 P.M

* http://www.itinhindi.org/Gyan-Jyoti/Gyan-JyotiII/english_part/ABOUT%20US_FRAME.htm, dated 10/4/2008 at

* 17.35 P.M

* http://www.itinhindi.org/Gyan-Jyoti/Gyan-JyotiII/english_part/statistics_frame.htm,dated 10/4/2008 at 17.35 P.M

* http://www.itinhindi.org/Gyan-Jyoti/Gyan-JyotiII/english_part/statistics_frame.htm ,dated 10/4/2008 at 17.35 P.M

(Note: The author is highly involved in the Gyan Jyoti project and has successfully seen the impact and usage form every walk of life.)
                                                                                                                                                        (5000 words app.)
 


Mr. Ranjan Upadhyaya
Faculty
FMS, WISDOM, Banasthali University
Banasthali-Newai-Rajasthan-304022
 

Source: E-mail May 11, 2008

          

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