Origin of Management including Competency Mapping:
Chanakya's Arthshastra, an ancient Indian script/ book on
Political Science and Administration, written some 3000 years ago. Other names of Chanakya were Mr. Kautilya, and Mr. Vishnu Gupt. Constitutions of all the major countries have origin in this book. It could be Indian Constitution,
Irish, Canadian, USA, Australian, etc. and even British unwritten constitutions have roots imbibed in this book. It is the towering book in which you find the basics and applications of Management Sciences, Chemistry, Physics,
Military and War techniques, Basic Engineering and Technologies, Ethics, Legal and Judiciary and Fiduciary system, Values, Psychology, and Anthropology, Organization Behavior, Human Resource Management. In fact major basics of all
Marketing Management, Human Resource Management, basics of Management Models, are been directly lifted with some modification from this book. Great efforts of Chanakya by all means; and one of the greatest contributions to the
world. You may call Arthshastra as a Classical book once if you read, you will find other subjects easy any time in your life.
If Geeta, Bible, Kuran, Gurugranthsahib, Adi Granth, Vedas, Vedanta are classical scripts in
spirituality then Arthshastra is one of the classical book for above mentioned subjects. In fact all the classical scripts have everything put in gist to live normal life happily. It is said that once you master classical books
everything becomes easier in later part of life and work.
One may find roots of Competency Mapping in Arthshastra and Geeta. However, the gist of books on
Competency Mapping is put here.
In nutshell Competency Mapping is put in few points:
1. Competency Mapping is also known as Competency Profiling, it analyses attributes of a person for doing job successfully.
Those attributes are:
d. Trait and
e. Motive for
2. Major Competencies those are required to become a successful Leader or/and Manager are:
f. Attitude, and
g. Skills, etc.
3. How they do assessment?
a. Through assessment center,
b. Through 360 degrees feedback,
c. Performance Appraisal Report,
d. Performance Based Reference Check,
e. Psychometric Test,
f. Personal Interview.
4. Competency Development by better planning using various on job and off job methods.
5. With Threshold Competency a job can be done in normal span of time.
6. With Differentiating Competency is that skill which makes a person to job exceptionally well.
7. Specific Competency requires focused knowledge and skill to perform certain tasks.
8. Higher order competency for manager is leadership role, motives, attitudes, traits, self conception.
9. Lower order competency for managers for certain tasks are knowledge of specific domain only, etc.
10. Types of Competency Mapping approaches:
i. Top – Down
ii. Bottom-up, and
iii. Hybrid/ Mixed
11. Steps of doing competency mapping:
i. Literature Review,
ii. Developing Constitution/ Policy and Rules and Regulation Framework,
iii. Decision to do it in house or out source,
iv. Decision to do it top-down, bottom-up or by hybrid way,
v. Category of skills,
vi. Tools used,
vii. Behavior Effectiveness Analysis,
viii. Performance outcome expected.
12. Noting the Competency Gap i.e. where that person, team, group, organization, is lacking?
13. Plan for Competency Development, which could be sending a man for deputation, or by coaching or by new assignment or by other
14. Reporting Grid is the method in which comparison between Top 10 and Bottom/ Poor Performers 10, is done and proper measures are taken.
15. Organizations in the business normally use the psychometric tests
and other such material to analyze people and business, originally founded by Saville and Holdsworth.
16. For Competency model development factors taken into consideration are:
i. Competency that cannot be found easily/ readily,
ii. Important attributes for successful performance,
iii. Cannot be easily developed through Training and Development,
iv. Competency that distinguishes one from others,
v. Can be easily developed,
vi. Can be easily found,
vii. Difficult to assess/ identify.
17. In People Capability Maturity Model, various goals are set up. They are as follows:
i. Goal 1st could be: Opportunity to Learn,
ii. Goal 2nd could be: Skills Development,
iii. Goal 3rd could be: Skills used in/ on job/ work.
iv. Goal 4th could be: Structured down the best practice into every day work.
18. Competency Mapping (C.M.) is used:
i. While doing 360 degrees feedback,
ii. While people development,
iii. While career path management,
iv. For culture and competency development,
v. For comparison between competitors,
vi. For reward,
vii. For recruitment,
viii. While promotion of an employee, etc.
This is brief free lesson on Competency Mapping and crux/ gist of 22 books. If you want live
cases, examples, have any doubt/s on it, let me know.